54 terms

CHAP 3 ANCIENT EGYPT AND NUBIA TEST

CHAP 3 EGYPT AND NUBIA pp61 - 90
STUDY
PLAY
Nile river
worlds longest river ---- more than 4,000 miles
2 main sources of the nile
Blue Nile and the White Nile
letter shape of the Nile
S
northern section of the Nile --goes by what name?
Nubia
name of the area between the 2nd and 6th cataracts ?
Upper Nubia -rain does fall people farmed in summer and fall
name of the area between the first and 2nd cataracts ?
Lower Nubia ---rarely rained --- people lived close the Nile for water
nubia
nothern end of the Nile
delta
area shaped like a triangle
silt
rich fertile soil that came from higher elevations in the spring
Kemet
the black land ---what Egyptians called their land b/c of the dark soil left by floods
red land
the desert on either side of the river
what was the value ofthe red land to the Egyptians?
protected them from invaders --b/c it was a harsh land Egypt was rarely attacked
what was the highway for Egyptian trade?
the Nile
cataract
large waterfall --- strong flood of water
why couldn't people travel through Nubia by river ?
the cataracts ---so they traveled by land
name some items carried by Nubia caravans
ivory,wood,feathers,eggs,panther skins
Hatshepsut
ruled Egypt during the New Kingdom --created a time of peace and good economy
pharoah
king of Egypt
dynasty
family of rulers ---32 dynasties until conquered by the Greeks
3 main periods of dynasties?
called kingdoms --- old,middle,new
Menes
king who united upper and lower Egypt --built Memphis
powers of the Pharoah?
power over the people, decided laws, religious leader ( beleived to influence the floods
Thutmose
child pharoah who treated people fairly --stepmother was his regent (Hatshepsut)
regent
someone who rules for a child until he is grown
New Kingdom of Egypt
last of the kingdoms ---conquered by Alexander the Great
afterlife
life after death --Egyptians believed in afterlife
Osiris
god of living and dead --human with animal head
Amon Re
chief god of ancients -- protected the rich and poor ... believed he was born every morning in the east and died everyday in the west
which bank ofthe Nile did Egyptians prefer to live on ?
the east -- not the west b/c that was the land of the dead
Isis
wife of Osiris
egyptian afterlife
was a journey by boat,if they had lived right they had an afterlife of pleasure (eating and drinking) ... they had to take their clothes with them
mummies
preserved bodies of the wealthy -- took 2-3 months, organs were removed, bodies filled with salt for at least 42 days , then bathed in spices, 20 layers of bandages
coffins of Pharoahs
"nested " ---several inside of the coffin that fit inside of each other
Pharoahs tombs
4th dynasty had biggest tombs ....the pyramids
building a pyramid
4 sloping outside walls,more t5han 2 million stones,pyramid fadced the 4 directions squarely ,sleds and rollers moved the stones,ramps,
how do we know of the lives of the ancient egyptians?
from paintings on the wall of tombs
Egyptian social classes
was like a pyramid : from top to bottom: Pharoah ;priests and nobles;middle class merchants and skilled workers; peasants at the bottom
work of peasants
builders and farmers
could a person rise from 1 class to another?
yes ---through service to the Pharoah
what happened to captured prisoners?
became slaves ,,, but could become free
lives of peasants
farmed land but during flooded season they were builders of roads and temples
women in Egypt
had most of the rights of men ---could own property and businesses
achievements of Egyptians
writing , astronomy and medicine
hieroglyphs
writing system of ancient egypt
papyrus
replaced clay -- and was an early form of paper made from reeds
Rosetta Stone
key to hieroglyphs --found in 1799 ad
Champollion
frenchman who figured out the hieroglyphs
astronomers
scienctist who studies the sky --noticed the Nile rose rapidly the same time as the dog star --Sirius
what did the Egyptians learn from making mummies
medicine -- how to fix broken bones....and treat the spine
the land of the bow ?
Nubia -----Nubians were skilled archers
kingdom of Kerma
noted for its Atrisians --skilled workers who made pottery
Kerma
wealthy kingdom ....mixed with the Egyptina kingdoms ...worshipped Egyptian gods
Kingdom of Napata
controlled Egypt for a short time --- 700 bc
kngdom of Meroe
had a desert that had iron ore ....Nubians began to make Iron tools as a result....iron plows,weapons,

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