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Anthropology Exam 1
Terms in this set (128)
the study of human kind
when a person judges other cultures solely in terms of his or her own culture
Define Participant Observation
anthropologists go to the field and live with their subjects
Define holistic anthropology
anthropologists incorporate economics, psychology and biology of human kind
What are the four fields of anthropology
the recovery analysis and interpretation of material culture from past civilizations
Define historic archaeology
study cultures recent past-using excavation and the written record
Define contract archaeology
surveys for environmental impact statements-government
Define ethno archaeology
remains of a living population
Define nautical archaeology
studying the remains of boats and ships lost under water
the study of the variety of languages spoken by human beings
Define historical linguistics
reconstruct the origins of specific languages and groups of languages
Define descriptive linguistics
study grammar and syntax of languages
study the actual use of language in the communication of every say life
Define cultural anthropology
the study of all aspects of human behavior
describe contemporary cultures
Define medical anthropology
biological cultural factors in health, disease, and treatment
Define applied anthropology
study and make proposals to solve practical problems
Define urban anthropology
developmental anthropology-study causes of under development and development of less developed peoples
Define biological anthropology
study of human biology within the framework of evolution with an interaction between biology and culture
behavior and biology of primates
Define human paleontology
search for and study fossil remains of early human species
Define forensic anthropology
identify victims of murders and accidents
Define human population genetics
hereditary differences between populations
Define human behavioral ecology
application of natural selection their to the study of human behavioral in an ecological setting
How much do humans vary from chimps?
How many genes do humans have?
What is the most frequently used trait to classify types of humans?
What is the concept of culture?
first developed by anthropologists toward the end of the 19th century
What did Edward Tylor do?
created the first clear and comprehensive definition of anthropology
How did Tylor define culture?
"that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs, and any other capabilities and habits squired by man as a member of society"
What are the two main attributes of culture?
culture is commonly shared and culture is learned
What does it mean to say a culture is learned?
for something to be considered cultural, it must be learned as well as shared, all animals exhibit learned behavior, some may be shared by the majority of the population
What does it mean to say culture is shared?
cultural thoughts or actions shared by a population/group of individuals, commonly shared customs of a society are a culture,
What is a subculture?
commonly shared customs of group within a society
What is always present in a culture?
What do species vary in?
learned and instinctive behaviors
Most human behavior is what?
Is what/how humans eat cultural?
What is the cruelty of American babies sleeping alone?
In most societies, a baby is almost constantly carried by someone or asleep next to others. People in such societies think it is cruel and inhumane when Americans make babies sleep on their own in a crib.
Define cultural ecology
analysis of thee relationship between a culture and its environment
What must cultural ecology be separated from?
Who was Julian Steward?
one of the first to advocate the study of cultural ecology, he felt that cultural ecology must be separated from biological ecology
Define theoretical orientation
a general attitude about how to explain cultural phenomena
Who were Andrew Vayda and Roy Rappaport and what did they wish to do?
cultural ecologists that wished to incorporate principles of biological ecology into the study of cultural ecology in order to make a single science of ecology
What did they consider biological and cultural traits to be?
adaptive or maladaptive
What does cultural adaptation involve?
the mechanisms of natural selection
What affects the development of culture traits?
Define political economy
external forces explain the way a society changes and adapts
What did Eric Wolf believe?
Puerto Rico developed as a result of colonialism
Who were Andre Gunder Frank and Immanuel Wallerstein and what did they believe?
sociologists that believed the development of a region depended on the suppression of others/argued that if we want to understand why a country remains underdeveloped, we must understand how it is being exploited by developed nations
What has the political economy inspired?
more explicit study of historical, political, and economic forced
How did anthropologists first treat their studies?
investigated as if those cultures were more or less isolated from external influence or forces
What does the political economy approach focus on?
What did political economy impact?
powerful state societies, European colonialism and imperialism after the mid-1400's
What did political economy foster?
the development of a worldwide economy or world system
What is political economy inattentive to?
recent world history
How does the environment affect the development of culture traits?
individuals or populations have different degrees of success in survival and reproduction and there is a differential transmission of their ways of behaving from generation to generation
Humans are one of the most ________ ________ species of living animals.
How much genetic basis is involved in human variation?
What is the ordering of human variation?
putting humans into categories that can be named, discussed and perhaps studied
What is the Egyptian skin color classification?
Red for Egyptians
Yellow for people to the East
White for people to the North
Black for the Africans from the South
What caused an increasing awareness of human variation?
the discovery of the New World
What did European and and American scientists concentrate on throughout the 18th and 19th centuries?
describing and classifying biological diversity as observed in humans as well as in nonhuman species
What are Linneaus' four races? (1st scientific attempt)
Homo europaeus, Homo afer, Homo asiaticus and Homo americanus
Who did Linneaus assign the least complimentary intellectual qualities to?
How were the Europeans viewed after Linneaus' declarations?
Europeans were superior to all other peoples
What were Blumenbach's five races?
Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Malay, Ethiopian, and American
Why was Blumenbach's work criticized?
because skin color is not a discrete category
What are nonadaptive traits?
characteristics that do not overlap between groups and are not influenced by environmental factors
What is the cephalic index?
a method of describing the shape of the head by dividing the head breadth by the length and multiplying by 100
Under the cephalic index, those with an index less than 75 were termed what?
Under the cephalic index, those with an index over 80 were termed what?
Under the cephalic index, those with an index between 75-80 were termed what?
Under the cephalic index, what did Northern Europeans tend to be? Southern Europeans?
Why was the cephalic index no longer considered a reliable indicator of race after comparing Northern Europeans to African populations?
because Northern Europeans and the African populations shared the tendency for long, narrow skulls
What are the two physiological responses to environment conditions?
1. short term functional responses
2. long term evolutionary (genetic changes)
What is acclimatization?
a physiological response to changes in the environment that occurs during an individuals lifetime
What is Gloger's Rule?
states that populations of birds and mammals living in warmer climates have more melanin and therefore darker skin, fur or feathers than do populations of the same species living in cooler climates
What are the 3 substances that influence skin color?
3. pigment melanin
What is melanin?
a granular substance produced by specialized cells in the epidermis called melanocytes
How does the number of melanocytes that each human has vary?
all humans have the same number of melanocytes
What does melanin protect you from?
protects your skin from sun overexposure
What is it about melanin that varies from human to human?
the amount of melanin and the size of the melanin granules
What kind of people does Natural Selection favor in the tropics?
dark skinned people
Where did early hominids live?
near the tropics
How did hominids spend most of their time?
outside without clothing
How are people in Europe and Asia affected by solar radiation?
solar radiation is less direct so their skin is lighter
What is the Vitamin D hypothesis?
the body's primary source of Vitamin D is its own ability to synthesize it through the interaction of UV light and a cholesterol like substance found in skin cells-if normal bone growth is to occur, adequate exposure to sunlight is essential
What could the insufficient amount of Vitamin D during childhood cause?
When did the idea of UV selection pressure relax?
When the Vitamin D hypothesis was introduced
What can Rickets cause?
Why is Rickets viewed as a selection agent?
because rickets was eliminating those that couldn't adapt to the Vitamin D hypothesis
Where and in who was Rickets most common?
northern black populations
What is used to determine sex?
XY/XX chromosomal system, primary sexual characteristics, and secondary sexual characteristics
What are primary sexual characteristics?
internal organs, genitalia
What are secondary sexual characteristics?
body composition, hair growth, voice, etc.
What is anisogamy?
differential reproductive investment by each sex/optimal sexual strategies will differ by sex and will reflect the limiting resource
What is the socio-cultural definition of gender?
the expression of the social rules typically associated with a particular biological sex
Gender is more tied to this than to sex.
issues of identity
What is the binary concept of gender?
sex is simply male and female and gender can be thought of as "masculine" and "feminine"
What is biological determinism?
the belief that an inborn characteristic or characteristics will largely control the behavior of an individual and define their possibilities in life
What is gender essentialism?
the belief that there are two "ideal" genders and hence gender roles and that individuals conform to these roles more or less perfectly
What is an "ought" proposition?
a claim about the way things should be
Who are the Fa'fafine?
a third gender specific to Samoan culture
born boys, they choose a female gender role
What is Two-spirit?
encompasses a series of roles occurring in many North American native tribes-may have both female and social roles
What is androgyny? Who usually participates in it?
Similar to cross-dressing. Many celebrities take on a more "masculine" or "feminine" role
There is an endless variety of human societies and what is the role of each?
each is a collection of people cooperating to ensure their collective survival and well being
What is predictable behavior?
it is culture that sets the limits of behavior and guides it along predictable paths
Culture is not what? Therefor it is what?
the shared ideals, values, and beliefs people use to interpret experience and generate behavior and that are reflected by their behavior
What is North American Culture?
the ideas and customs we share
ex: don't eat dog, sleep on beds, germ theory (all cultural)
What does "culture" mean in everyday usage?
refers to a desirable quality we can acquire by attending a sufficient number of plays and concerts and art museums and galleries
How does the anthropologist usage of "culture" differ from the everyday usage?
they refer to culture as the total way of life of any society, there are no uncultured societies or individuals
What does the early progressive view of culture mean?
in the 1870's the view was that culture develops in a uniform and progressive manner that involved six stages
What is early evolutionism?
the belief that culture develops in a uniform and progressive manner
Who believed that there were six stages of family?
Lewis Henry Morgan
What did Frank Boas believe?
he believed that the early evolutionist (Morgan) did not understand the details or context of the cultures
What did Frank Boas do?
Challenged the attitude that western cultures were superior
What is cultural relativism?
the attitude that a society's customs and ideas should be described objectively and understood in the context of that society's problems and opportunities
What did Ruth Benedict advocate? What did it mean?
strong cultural relativism
morality differs in every society and that all patterns of culture are equally valid
What is weak cultural relativism?
anthropologists should strive for objectivity in describing people and they should be wary of quick superficial judgements
What is the presumption of tolerance?
tolerance should be the basic mode unless there is strong reason to behave otherwise-anthropolgists can try to change behavior they think is harmful
What does Judith Butler's "Gender Trouble" state?
sex, gender, and sexuality are not one continuous block of identity
the individual is still constrained, not by biology, but by cultural and societal expectations
gender is a performance
Sex is between ______, and gender is between ________
What are gender roles?
can pertain to economic function, personal interests and hobbies
What is the binary representation of sexuality?
straight or gay/not straight
Who is Alfred Kinsey? What did he do?
published "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" which included a 7 point scale that measured the orientation of prior as well as current sexual activity
What are the limitations of the Kinsey Scale?
it focused on activity, whereas orientation is more a matter of attraction
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