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Three Main types of Membrane receptors:
1. G Protein-coupled receptors 2. Receptor tyrosine kinases 3. Ion channel receptors
What is a plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G protein
G-protein coupled receptors
The small, nonprotein, water soluble molecules or ions that spread throughout the cell by diffusion
_____ catalyzes the production of _____, which then opens an ion channel that releases _____ into the cell's cytoplasm.
Phospholipase C ... IP3 .... Ca2+
A toxin that inhibits the production of GTP would interfere with the function of a signal transduction pathway that is initiated by the binding of a signal molecule to _____ receptors.
Cell biologists use the term "ligand" to refer to _____.
any small molecule that can bind in a specific manner to a larger one
Tyrosine-kinase receptors are characterized by their _____.
enzymatic phosphorylation of tyrosine in the receptor protein
A signal molecule can cause different responses in different cells because _____.
the transduction process is unique to each cell type; to respond to a signal, different cells require only a similar membrane receptor
In apoptosis, a cell is chopped and packaged into vesicles that are digested by ____________
Apoptosis can be triggered by what 3 things?
1. an extracellular death-signaling ligand 2. DNA damage in Nucleus 3. Protein misfolding in the ER
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