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Signal transduction pathways convert signals on a cell's surface into _____

cellular responses

What are the three Stages of Cell Signaling

1. Reception 2. Transduction 3. Response

Three Main types of Membrane receptors:

1. G Protein-coupled receptors 2. Receptor tyrosine kinases 3. Ion channel receptors

What is a plasma membrane receptor that works with the help of a G protein

G-protein coupled receptors

What are the membrane receptors that attach phosphates to tyrosines

Receptor tyrosine kinases

What is the receptor that acts as a gate when the receptor changes shape

Ligand-gated ion Chanel

Protein Kinases transfers phosphates from ATP to proteins in what process


Protein Phosphates remove the phosphates from proteins in what process


The extracellular signal molecule that binds to the receptor is a pathway's _____

first messenger

The small, nonprotein, water soluble molecules or ions that spread throughout the cell by diffusion

second messengers

What is the most widely used second messanger

Cyclic AMP

A signal transduction pathway is initiated when a _____ binds to a receptor.

signal molecule

A signal molecule is known as ________


What are two second messengers?

Calcium and Cyclic AMP

Thyroid hormones bind to _____ receptors.


A signal transduction pathway is initiated when a _____ binds to a receptor.

signal molecule

Calcium ions that act as second messengers are stored in _____.


_____ catalyzes the production of _____, which then opens an ion channel that releases _____ into the cell's cytoplasm.

Phospholipase C ... IP3 .... Ca2+

The cleavage of glycogen by glycogen phosphorylase releases _____.


Epinephrine acts as a signal molecule that attaches to _____ proteins.

G-Protein Linked Receptor

A toxin that inhibits the production of GTP would interfere with the function of a signal transduction pathway that is initiated by the binding of a signal molecule to _____ receptors.

G-Protein linkage

A substance that acts at a long distance from the site at which it is secreted is a ____.


Cell biologists use the term "ligand" to refer to _____.

any small molecule that can bind in a specific manner to a larger one

Tyrosine-kinase receptors are characterized by their _____.

enzymatic phosphorylation of tyrosine in the receptor protein

A signal molecule can cause different responses in different cells because _____.

the transduction process is unique to each cell type; to respond to a signal, different cells require only a similar membrane receptor

Apoptosis is _____.

controlled cell suicide

In apoptosis, a cell is chopped and packaged into vesicles that are digested by ____________

Scavenger Cells

Apoptosis prevents _________ from leaking out of a dying cell


What is important in shaping an organism during embryonic development?


What are the main proteases that carry out apoptosis?


Apoptosis can be triggered by what 3 things?

1. an extracellular death-signaling ligand 2. DNA damage in Nucleus 3. Protein misfolding in the ER

Apoptosis and essential to what of all animals?

Development and Maintenance

What two diseases may Apoptosis be involved in>

Alzheimers and Parkinsons

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