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12. respiratory pathology + procedures
Terms in this set (61)
listening to sounds within the body.
tapping on a surface to determine the difference in density of the underlying structure. (solid- dull, air-filled= holllow note)
scratchy sound produced by pleural surfaces rubbing against each other. can be heard/felt
fine crackling sounds heart on auscultation when there is fluid in the alveoli (inhalation) pneumonia or bronchectasis or acute bronchitis
loud rumbling sounds heart on aucultatin of bronchi obstructed by sputum. (snoring- congestion/inflamed)
material expelled from the bronchi, lungs or URT by spitting. purulent (pus-infection-asthma) or blood tinged (tuberculosis, malignancy) C&S
strained high-pitched sound heard on inspiration caused by obstruction in the pharynx or larynx. croup, allergies, epiglottitis, laryngitis, injury, abscess
continuous high-pitched whistling sound produced during breathing. (narrowed airways) asthma
acute viral infection of infants/kids with obstruction of the larynx, barking cough, and stridor. influenza or RSV
acute infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the diphtheria bacterium. DPT vaccine
nosebleed. irritation of nasal membranes, trauma, vitamin k deficiency, clotting abnormalities, hypertens
pertussis- whooping cough
highly contagious bacterial infection of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea caused by bordetella pertussis
chronic bronchial inflammatory disorder with airway obstruction due to bronchial edema and constriction and increased mucus production. dyspnea, wheezing, cough. allergy or infection
anti-inflammatory agents inhaled (glucocorticoids), bronchodilaters (albuterol), leukotreiene blockers (singulair) and trigger avoidance.
chronic dilation of a bronchus secondary to infection. secretions puddle and don't drain. cough, fever, expectoration of purulent (pus) sputum. palliative treatment- antibiotics, mucolytics, bronchodilators, resp therapy
inflammation of bronchi persisting over a long time. type of COPD. infection and smoking. excessive secretion of mucus, cough, obstruction of resp passageways.
inherited disorder of exocrine glands resulting in thick mucous secretions in the respiratory tract that do not drain normally. pancreas, sweat glands, epithelium
collapsed lung- incomplete expansion of alveoli. blockage or fluid in pleural cavity
hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls. loss of elasticity- expiratory flow limitations. pressure rises and r heart must work harder to pump blood- leads to r v hypertrophy and r heart failure (cor pulmonale)
malignant tumor arising from the lungs and bronchi- most frequent fatal malignancy
non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma
derived from mucus-secreting cells and from the lining cells of the upper airway. chemotherapy and radiation therapy
small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
small round "oat" cells found in pulmonary epithelium grows rapidly and spreads outside the lung.
abnormal condition caused by dust in teh lungs with chronic inflammation, infection, and bronchitis. anthracosis- coal, dust (black lung disease). asbestosis-asbestos particle. silicosis-rock/glass (grinders disease)
acute inflammation and infection of alveoli which fill with pus of products of the inflammatory reaction.
fluid/blood/cells/debris consolidates alveoli (sacs become glued together= less effective air exchange) and fluid-filled area within the lungs seen on x ray
lobar pneumonia and bronchopneumonia
involves entire lobe of a lung. common in infants/old involves patchy consolidation (abscesses) in the lung parenchyma
community acquired pneumonia
contagious respiratory infection. oral antibiotics
hospital acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia
on mechanical ventilator or infection
material lodging into bronchi or lungs.
large collection of pus in the lungs
fluid in the air sacs and bronchioles caused by CHF. fluid backs up in pulmonary BV and seeps out into alveoli. keep pt. in sitting position to decrease venous return
pulmonary embolism (PE)
clot or other material lodges in vessels of the lung. may lead to pulmonary infarction. pain on inspiration. CT angiography used to diagnose
formation of scar tissue in the CT of the lungs. from pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonconiosis
Chronic inflammatory disease in which small nodules (granulomas) develop in lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. most pt. asymptomatic and retain pulmonary function. corticosteriods used to prevent
infectious disease involving the lungs and any other organ. bacilli invade lungs produce tubercles of infection. cough, weight loss, night sweats, hemoptysis, pleuritic pain. antituberculosis chemo.PPD
rare malignant tumor arising in the pleura. caused by asbestos exposure
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. exudate (fluid from tumors/infections/trauma/disease) and transudate (fluid from CHF, PE, cirrhosis)
inflammation of the pleura. causes pleurodynia and dyspnea (sometimes pleural effusion)
collection of air in the pleural space.
pleurodesis (to bind)
artificial production of adhesions between parietal + visceral pleura for treatment of pneumothorax and pleural effusion. talc powder or antibiotics.
chest x-ray (CXR)
radiographic image of the thoracic cavity (chest film). PA or AP views.
series of x-ray images each showing a slice of the chest at different depths. detect small masses not seen on regular films
CT scan of the chest
Computer-generated series of x-ray images show thoracic structures in cross section and other planes. (lesions)
MRI of the chest
magnetic waves create detailed images of the chest in frontal, lateral, and cross-sectional (axial) planes. locates mediastinal tumors (hodgkin disease)
PET scan of the lung
radioactive glucose is injected and images reveal metabolic activity in the lungs. malignant tumors and nodules can be identified.
Ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scan
detection device records radioactivity in the lung after injection of a radioisotope or inhalation of small amount of radioactive gas (xenon). identifies areas of the chest not receiving adequate air or blood flow.
fiberoptic endoscope examination of the bronchial tubes. bronchioalveolar lavage (bronchial washing)= fluid is injected and withdrawn. transbronchial biopsy (bronchial brushing)= forceps used to grasp tissue or a brush is inserted through scope to scrape off tissue.
placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx, and trachea to establish an airway. ventilator
visual examination of the voice box using an endoscope
removal of lung tissue followed by microscopic examination.
endoscopic visual examination of the mediastinum
pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
tests that measure the ventilation mechanics of the lungs (airway function, lung volume and capacity of the lungs to exchange gases efficiently.) uses spirometer
obstructive lung disease
airways are narrowed which results in resistance to air flow durring breathing. causes decreased expiratory flow rate (FEV1) (COPD, asthma, CF, bronchiolitis)
restrictive lung disease
expansion of lung is limited by disease that affects teh chest wall, pleura, or lung tissue. Decreased lung capacity (TLC). (pulmonary fibrosis, radiation, pneumoconiosis. myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy)
surgical puncture to remove fluid from the pleural space.
large surgical incision of the chest.
visual examination of the chest via small incisions and use of an endoscope. uses video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS)
surgical creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck. permanent or emergency device
determines past or present tb infection based on a + skin reaction. Heaf + time test, PPD, and mantoux test
chest tube is passed through an opening in the chest to continuously drain a pleural effusion.
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