Engineering Study Guide Part 1

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Terms in this set (...)

Shear
A compression force applied to a material in opposite directions that slide past each other across a perpendicular plane.
Stress
The amount of force applied per unit area.
Elastic limit
The amount of stress that will cause a material to deform permanently.
Newton
The SI unit of measure for force (abbreviation: N).
Plastic deformation
A permanent change in a material due to stress.
Dead load
The weight of the materials in the structure itself and all major architectural or product features.
Strain
The amount a material distorts due to the force applied.
Cantilever
A structural member which projects beyond its support and is supported at only one end.
Moment
The tendency of a force to cause a rotation about a point or axis which in turn produces bending stresses.
Tension
A force that is pulling against something.
Torsion
A twisting force.
Dynamic load
Any load that is changing and/or in motion.
Tensile strength
The pulling stress a material can withstand without tearing.
Elastic deformation
The change in a material due to stress but the material can return to its original shape when the stress is removed.
Static load
A load that is at rest or motionless.
Structure
A body that supports a load and will resist external forces without changing its shape, except for the elasticity of the material used.
Bending
A force that occurs when one side of an object is being compressed while the other is under tension.
Arch
A bowed structure that transfers its weight evenly. The base, or abutments, prevents the structure from spreading out.
Beam
A horizontal structural component that is designed to resist compression, bending, shear and torsion forces.
Hooke's law
The direct relationship between the force applied and the amount of deformation that results.
Girder
A main horizontal, primary structural member spanning between two main supports which carries other members or vertical loads.
Force
Energy that occurs on a body causing physical action and/or movement.
Gusset
A plate used to connect structural steel members or to reinforce members.
Truss
A structure comprising of one or more triangular pieces meant to support loads while reducing material usage.
Compression
A force where two opposing forces are pushing exactly towards each other.
Live load
The weight of all objects including people in or on a structure. This also includes natural forces created by wind, water, snow or seismic activity.
Camber
The curvature of a beam created so that it will become straight once a load is placed on it.
Characteristic strength
The strength at which a member tested would fail with 95% confidence.
Load factor
The amount multiplied by the maximum load expected used to design structures stronger than actually required.
Young's Modulus
A measure of the elasticity of a material defined as stress divided by strain.
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