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LAST BIOLOGY QUARTERLY!
Terms in this set (77)
What is Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection?
the process by which organisms with variations most suited to their local environment survive & leave more offspring
In what situation will natural selection occur?
Any, as long as the conditions are met
What is the evidence of evolution?
Homologous, analogous, and vestigial structures
What is a homologous structure?
when very different animals have bones that appear very similar in form or function and seem to be related
What is an analogous structure?
a body part that shares common function but not structure and are not inherited from a common ancestor
What is an example of an analogous structure?
wing of a bee and wing of a bird
What is a vestigial structure?
a small body part, tissue, or organ that no longer serves its original purpose but is still inherited from a common ancestor
What is an example of a vestigial structure?
Hipbone in dolphins
What was the Urey and Miller experiment? (Stanley Miller and Harold Urey)
suggested how mixtures of the organic compounds necessary for life could have arisen from simpler compounds on a primitive Earth
What did the Urey and Miller experiment look like?
What are the sources of genetic variation?
mutation, lateral gene transfer, and genetic recombination in sexual reproduction
What is lateral gene transfer?
Passing genes from one individual to another
What are the types of genetic recombination in sexual reproduction?
Crossing over during gamete formation and independent assortment
What are the characteristics of species?
the ability to breed and produce fertile offspring
What is pesticide resistance?
the decreased vulnerability of a pest population to a pesticide that was previously effective
How does pesticide resistance occur?
natural selection: the most resistant specimens survive and pass on their genetic traits to their offspring
The HbS allele for sickle cell occurs at a higher frequency in Africa than it does in the U.S. because...
...natural selection favors heterozygotes in Africa but favors homozygotes in the U.S.
What is the Bottleneck effect?
a form of genetic drift that involves a severe reduction of the gene pool
What is the Founder principle?
a form of genetic drift that involves a small group moving away from the original population
What is gradualism?
Evolution occurs at a slow, steady rate
What is stabilizing selection?
When individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end
What does a graph of stabilizing selection look like?
The curve stays centered but it narrows the ends
What is disruptive selection?
When individuals at the outer ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle of the curve
What does disruptive selection act against?
the individuals of the intermediate
What does a graph of disruptive selection look like?
the curve is higher on the ends and lower in the middle
If the pressure of evolution lasts long enough, what can happen to disruptive selection?
the curve can split into two
What is directional selection?
When individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end
What shifts during directional selection?
the range of phenotypes
What does a graph of directional selection look like?
the center shifts
What is primary succession?
Starts in areas that no remnants of old life exist
What is an example of primary succession?
land after a volcano
What is secondary succession?
Starts in areas in which small parts of the original community are left behind
What is an example of secondary succession?
forest after a fire
What is a pioneer species?
First organism to colonize the area
What kind of succession can a pioneer species be found in?
What are the parts of a food chain/web?
producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, etc.
How much energy moves through each trophic level of an energy pyramid?
How do nutrients move in an ecosystem?
through the matter four cycles: water, carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous
What is symbiosis?
Any relationship in which two species live closely together
What are example of symbiosis?
commensalism, parasitism, and mutualism
What is commensalism?
One member benefits and the other is neither helped or hurt
What is parasitism?
One organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it
What is mutualism?
Both species benefit from the relationship
What is biological magnification?
the accumulation of toxic pollutants in animals at the higher trophic levels
What is an abiotic factor?
Physical components of an ecosystem
What are examples of abiotic factors?
rocks, soil, water
What is a biotic factor?
Biological influences on organisms
What are examples of biotic factors?
animals, plants, microorganisms
What is a niche?
the range of physical & biological conditions in which a species lives & the way it obtains what it needs to survive and reproduce
What is a keystone species?
Single species that doesn't have a large population size but exerts a strong control on the structure of the community
What is an example of a keystone species?
The sea otter feeds on sea urchins, which leaves less urchins to eat kelp. Kelp is a major source of food and shelter for the ecosystem. Therefore, the sea otter is saving the kelp for the rest of the ecosystem.
What is Ebola?
an infection caused by a filovirus, characterized by fever, muscle pain and hemmorrhaging
When was Ebola first discovered?
What is the Zika Virus?
a viral infection carried by mosquitoes, characterized by muscle pain, headache, rash and conjunctivitis, and may lead to birth defects in pregnant women
When was Zika Virus first discovered?
What is Tuberculosis?
a bacterial infection that attacks the lungs and spreads through the air, characterized by chest pain, coughing up blood, fatigue, and fever
What is Latent Tuberculosis Infection?
When TB bacteria lives in the body without making you sick
What is Tuberculosis Disease?
When the TB bacterium becomes active (starts multiplying)
What is cholera?
an bacterial infection that causes an infection of the intestines, characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps
How is cholera spread?
through drinking water or consuming food sources that have been contaminated with cholera
What is West Nile Virus?
a virus spread through mosquitoes to horses and humans, characterized by neck stiffness, seizures, disorientation, and fever
What is SARS?
a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus, characterized by fever, body aches and a dry cough
How is SARS spread?
What is leprosy?
a long-lasting bacterial infection that affects the skin and nerves, characterized by skin lesions, muscle weakness, eye problems and enlarged nerves
How is leprosy spread?
What is anthrax?
a serious infectious disease caused by rod-shaped bacteria, spread through highly contagious spores found in soil
What is rabies?
a preventable viral disease of mammals that affects the central nervous system, characterized by hallucinations, hypersalivation, and partial paralysis
How is rabies spread?
through the bite of a rabid animal
What is measles?
a highly contagious virus that is spread through the air, characterized by cold-like symptoms and a rash that spreads over the whole body
When was measles eliminated?
What is smallpox?
a viral disease that was eradicated in 1979, characterized by fever, body aches, vomiting and rash
How is smallpox spread?
direct face-to-face contact or direct contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated objects such as bedding or clothing
When was smallpox eradicated?
What is tetanus?
an infection caused by bacteria, characterized by jaw cramping and muscle spasms
What happens when the tetanus bacteria invade the body?
they produce a poison that causes painful muscle contractions
Where is the tetanus bacteria found?
soil, dust and manure
How does one get tetanus?
the bacteria enters the body through breaks in the skin - usually cuts or puncture wounds caused by contaminated objects
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