191 terms

Key word transformations (CAE)

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has picked up
It hasn't taken Sam long to learn Spanish.
Sam _______ Spanish very quickly. (picked)
to make the most of
We must take as much advantage as possible of any opportunity to speak English.
We have _______ any opportunity to speak English. (most)
it doesn't matter to
Honestly, I don't mind where we go for our summer holidays.
Honestly, _______ me where we go for our summer holidays. (matter)
were you able to
Could you speak English when you were younger?
When you were younger, _______ speak English? (able)
take eight away / away eight from
What's the answer to sixteen minus eight?
If you _______ sixteen, what's the answer? (away)
took part in
Three hundred students entered the swimming competition last year.
Three hundred students _______ the swimming competition last year. (part)
will have finished by
The students will finish their English course at the end of June.
The English course _______ the beginning of July. (have)
will (have) run out
There will be no more oil available in this area in 2030.
Oil supplies in this area _______ by the year 2031. (run)
isn't very keen on
My sister doesn't like computer games very much.
My sister _______ computer games. (keen)
asked Peter if he had
"Did you eat the chocolates?" Maria said to Peter.
Maria _______ eaten the chocolates. (asked)
had gone by
Bob hadn't seen his uncle for several years.
After several years _______ , Bob saw his uncle again. (gone)
could have done with
I needed a cup of coffee this morning but I didn't have time for one.
I _______ a cup of coffee this morning but I didn't have time for one. (done)
of putting up with
I'm not going to tolerate this untidiness any longer.
I have no intention _______ this untidiness any longer. (up)
in spite of the rain
We went for a walk although it was raining yesterday.
We went for a walk _______ yesterday. (spite)
is bound to be
I'm sure it will be raining tomorrow.
It _______ raining tomorrow. (bound)
you lend me
Could I borrow some change for the telephone?
Could _______ some change for the telephone? (lend)
haven't fallen out for
It's ages since my sister and I had an argument.
My sister and I _______ ages. (out)
despite the fact that we
We are friends although we have disagreements about some things.
We are friends _______ disagree about some things. (despite)
John has come/gone down
Has John caught a cold?
Can you tell me if _______ with a cold? (down)
found the film really boring
I was really bored by the film last night.
I _______ last night. (found)
had better go
I think it's time the children went to bed now.
I think the children _______ to bed now. (had)
came up against
The problem we were faced with was a serious one.
The problem we _______ was a serious one. (came)
wish I had applied
It was a mistake not to apply for the job.
I _______ for the job. (wish)
has nothing to do with
Being rich has no connection with being happy.
Being rich _______ being happy. (nothing)
looking forward to seeing
I can't wait to see the sights in London.
I am _______ the sights in London. (forward)
has picked up
The tourist trade is much better now than it was last month.
The tourist trade _______ noticeably since last month. (picked)
ought to be preserved by
Governments should preserve all the world's languages.
All the world's languages _______ governments. (ought)
haven't finished their/the match
The tennis players' match is still going on.
The tennis players _______ yet. (finished)
me when your plane lands
What time does your plane land tomorrow?
Can you tell _______ tomorrow? (when)
used to be spent
The family always spent their holidays climbing in the mountains.
The family's holidays _______ climbing in the mountains. (used)
do you any harm
Physical exercise won't hurt you if you are careful.
Physical exercise won't _______ if you are careful. (do)
is the difference between
How does a rock climber differ from a mountaineer?
What _______ a rock climber and a mountaineer? (between)
was not as big as
This new dining table is bigger than the one we had before.
The dining table we had before _______ this new one. (not)
not have turned down
It was not a good idea for you to refuse the offer of that job.
You should _______ the offer of that job. (down)
advised me to spend
My teacher suggested that I spent the summer in England.
My teacher _______ the summer in England. (advised)
was much more interesting than
The film is not as interesting as the novel was.
The novel _______ the film. (much)
will take care of
Will your neighbours look after your dog when you go away?
Do you know if your neighbours _______ your dog when you go away? (take)
how about taking
Tom, wouldn't it be a good idea to take the students swimming tomorrow?
Tom, _______ the students swimming tomorrow? (how)
has been teaching us/has been our teacher for
Miss Jones first came to teach us a month ago.
Miss Jones _______ a month now. (for)
appears to be rising
We are noticing a rise in the cost of living again.
The cost of living _______ again. (appears)
were on our way
While we were going home, we had an accident.
We _______ home when we had an accident. (way)
like the look of
I'm worried about that bruise on your hand.
I don't _______ that beuise on your hand. (look)
have fallen through
Susan has had no success with her plans to work abroad, unfortunately.
Susan's plans to work abroad _______ , unfortunately. (through)
told me not to forget/to remember
"Don't forget to phone tomorrow," said my mother.
My mother _______ to phone the next day. (told)
know if anyone had noticed
"Did anyone notice anything unusual?" asked the police officer.
The police officer wanted to _______ anything unusual. (if)
to pick up
Whatever you do, don't lift that heavy suitcase.
I'd advise you not _______ that heavy suitcase. (up)
could have forgotten
Maybe John has not remembered about tonight's party.
I suppose John _______ about tonight's party. (could)
to blame yourself/yourselves
You should not think that the accident was your fault.
It would be wrong _______ for the accident. (blame)
must be interested in
I am sure Maria finds reading interesting because she has lots of books.
Maria _______ reading because she has lots of books. (must)
didn't put you off
I hope you were not discouraged by Sandra from going to the concert.
I hope Sandra _______ going to the concert. (put)
is the third time
I have been to this restaurant three times now.
This _______ I have been to this restaurant now. (time)
am too exhausted to
I am so exhausted that I won't be able to go out tonight.
I _______ go out tonight. (too)
took part in
The runners had a difficult time competing in the race.
The runners who _______ the race had a difficult time. (part)
is the race taking place
Do you know when the race is being held next year?
When _______ next year? (place)
will have/need to be sent
It will be necessary to send this letter first class.
This letter _______ firstclass. (have)
asked me if I was
"Are you waiting to be served?" Said the waitress to me.
The waitress _______ waiting to be served. (asked)
only I hadn't bought
Buying those jeans was not a sensible thing for me to do yesterday.
If _______ those jeans yesterday. (only)
was set up by
The owner established the company in 2001.
The company _______ the owner in 2001. (up)
needn't have booked
We booked seats but it was not necessary because there was plenty of room.
We _______ seats because there was plenty of room. (booked)
making/to make up his mind
It is difficult for Paul to decide what to do.
Paul finds it difficult _______ what to do. (mind)
was set back
Bad weather delayed the building project for several weeks.
The building project _______ for several weeks by the bad weather. (set)
from top to bottom
Sara cleaned every bit of her room before her cousin came to stay.
Sara cleaned her room _______ before her cousin came to stay. (top)
is more expensive than
Travelling by bus is cheaper than travelling by train.
Travelling by train _______ travelling by bus. (more)
brought it home to
Leaving school made me realise that my childhood was over.
Leaving school _______ me that my childhood was over. (brought)
get round to tidying
I never find time to tidy my desk.
I never _______ my desk. (round)
to make yourselves at
Please behave as if you are in your own house during your stay.
I'd like you all _______ home during your stay. (make)
were/was taller I could
I am not tall enough to reach the top of this cupboard.
If I _______ reach the top of this cupboard. (taller)
put me through to
I'd like you to connect me to the managing director's extension number.
Could you _______ the managing director's extention number? (through)
what we need is
To tell the truth, we need a swimming pool for this school.
To tell the truth, _______ a swimming pool for this school. (what)
who this umbrella belonhs to
Do you know whose this umbrella is, by any chance?
Do you know _______ , by any chance? (belongs)
who/that came up with
Was it Paul's idea to go to the cinema?
Was it Paul _______ the idea of going to the cinema? (came)
made their way
The boats began to move slowly out of the harbour.
The boats slowly _______ out of the harbour. (way)
wasn't able to finish
One runner did not succeed in finishing the race.
One runner _______ the race. (able)
blame me for breaking
It is not my fault that the glass broke.
You cannot _______ the glass. (blame)
fed up with watching
I am starting to find watching television boring.
i am beginning to get _______ television. (fed)
really gets me down
Bad weather makes me feel really unhappy in the winter.
Bad weather _______ in the winter. (down)
was help up by fog
Fog delayed my flight to Moscow this morning.
My flight to moscow _______ this morning. (up)
in urgent need of help
Help was urgently needed in the flooded area of the country.
They were _______ in the flooded area of the country. (need)
so that I could learn
I went to Italy with the intention of learning Italian.
I went to Italy _______ Italian. (that)
forget to take/bring back
Remember to return the videos you have rented.
Don't _______ the videos you have rented. (back)
on our way home
While we were going home yesterday we got caught in a thunderstorm.
We got caught in a thunderstorm while we were _______ yesterday. (way)
has changed her mind
Has Mary altered her decision about moving to the countryside?
Do you know if Mary _______ about moving to the countryside? (mind)
wish (that) Kevin would stop
I'd like Kevin to stop telling me what to do.
I _______ telling me what to do! (wish)
to know if we were
"Are you pleased it's nearly half-term?" said the teacher to us.
The teacher wanted _______ pleased it was nearly half-term. (know)
expenditure is more/greater than
We are earning less than we are spending, I'm afraid.
Our _______ our income, I'm afraid. (expenditure)
see the/any necessity of/in
I don't think having luxuries in life is necessary.
I don't _______ having luxuries in life. (necessity)
nowhere near as much
I don't earn anything like the amount I did before.
I earn _______ as I did before. (nowhere)
takes place/will take place/is taking place on
The date for the Barcelona Conference is the 23rd of March.
The Barcelona Conference _______ the 23rd of March. (place)
not much to look
The house was not very attractive in appearance when we first saw it.
The house was _______ at when we first saw it. (much)
is no longer any demand
No-one wants to buy this type of music any more.
There _______ for this type of music. (longer)
don't regret studying
Looking back, I think I was right to study mathematics at university.
Looking back, I _______ mathematics at university. (regret)
to cut back on
Our spending will have to be reduced next year.
We will have _______ our spending next year. (back)
was no doubt in the
The children were absolutely certain that the film would be fantastic.
There _______ minds of the children that the film would be fantastic. (doubt)
if anyone brought up
Did anyone raise the subject of the school trip?
Can you tell me _______ the subject of the school trip? (brought)
have been learning English for
I started learning English three years ago.
I _______ three years. (been)
is being brought/moved forward
They are moving our oral examination to an earlier date.
Our oral examination _______ to an earlier date. (forward)
if I felt like going
"Do you want to go for a walk?" asked Bob.
Bob asked me _______ for a walk. (felt)
had concentrated she would have
Olivia did not concentrate so she made a lot of mistakes.
If Olivia _______ made fewer mistakes. (would)
if you could tell
Do you happen to know the time of the next train to London?
I wonder _______ me the time of the next train to London. (could)
always find nature programmes fascinating
The children are always fascinated by nature programmes on TV.
The children _______ when they watch them on TV. (find)
suggested (that) we should go
"What about going for a swim?" said John to me.
John _______ for a swim. (should)
we had never gone
Having a holiday together was a mistake because we argued all the time.
I wish _______ on holiday together because we argued all the time. (never)
you had kept my news secret
You were not supposed to tell anyone about my news!
I'd rather _______ instead of telling everyone! (secret)
would prefer to have given/would have preferred to give
Although I wanted to quit smoking gradually, my doctor told me to stop immediately.
I _______ up smoking gradually, but my doctor told me to stop immediately. (prefer)
down our request for
If the bank refuses to lend us money, we might have to ask your parents instead.
If the bank turns _______ a loan, we might have to ask your parents instead. (request)
not for his strange sense of
I would find Andy more attractive if he didn't laugh at strange things.
If it were _______ humour, I would find Andy quite attractive. (sense)
should/if you happen to come/if you should happen to come
If you should ever come to France, please feel free to visit us.
Please feel free to visit us _______ to France. (happen)
would probably not have/probably would not have come/jumped
The most likely reason for the scientists getting the conclusion wrong is that they were not thorough enough with their research.
If their research had been more thorough, the scientists _______ to the wrong conclusion. (probably)
talking/speaking about herself in
Karen's shyness means that she tries not to speak about anything personal in front of other people.
Karen prefers to avoid _______ public, as she is terribly shy. (herself)
losing (some/a little) weight would/will do
It would be a good idea if you could lose a couple of kilos.
I don't think that _______ you any harm. (weight)
have taken more care in/while/when
I think this report needed to be written more carefully.
You should _______ writing this report. (care)
a speech on behalf of
Since the director could not speak at the awards ceremony himself, one of the actors took his place.
One of the actors made _______ the director at the awards ceremony. (behalf)
until it stops/has stopped making
After the noise from the machine has stopped, you can open the lid.
Do not open the lid of the machine _______ that noise. (until)
I had paid more/greater attention to
I regret not concentrating more on what the teacher said during my French lessons.
I now wish _______ the teacher during my French lessons. (attention)
on no account should
The man is armed and you should not approach him under any circumstances.
The man is armed and _______ you approach him. (account)
take most credit for the success
It's mostly thanks to John that the project succeeded.
It's John who should _______ of the project. (credit)
risk being accused of
If you don't acknowledge your sources, there's a danger people will accuse you of plagiarism.
If you don't acknowledge your sources, you _______ plagiarism. (risk)
has had such an impact on
The crisis has affected business so much that we may have to close down the company.
The crisis _______ business that we may have to close down the company. (impact)
when it comes to
He's not a good guitarist, but there is no better singer than him.
He's not a good guitarist, but _______ singing, he is the best. (comes)
turning/having turned a blind eye to
The party leader admitted she had pretended not to notice the corruption amongst her own politicians.
The party leader admitted to _______ the corruption amongst her own politicians. (eye)
this matter to be dealt with
It is the line manager who should deal with this matter.
It is advisable for _______ by the line manager. (be)
keeping an eye on
Could you watch my suitcases while I go and buy my ticket?
Would you mind _______ my suitcases while I go and buy my ticket? (eye)
to be higher than it
The rainfall in the west of the country usually exceeds that in the east.
The rainfall in the west of the country tends _______ is in the east. (higher)
far as I can tell
It's hard to be sure, but I think unemployment rates are beginning to fall.
As _______ , unemployment rates are beginning to fall. (tell)
could put up my feet/could put my feet up
It would be wonderful to sit down and relax for a few minutes.
I wish that I _______ for a few minutes. (feet)
came up with the idea of
We were very grateful that Kate thought of suggesting we ask Max for help.
We were very grateful that Kate _______ asking Max for help. (came)
take gloves in case it is/gets
Don't forget to take gloves, as it may well be cold in the mountains.
You should _______ cold in the mountains. (case)
wasn't challenging enough
I gave up the job at the hotel because there were too few challenges.
I gave up the job at the hotel because it _______ for me. (enough)
may well be chosen by
There is a strong possibility that the manager will choose Antonio to play on Saturday but it depends on his state of fitness.
Antonio _______ the manager to play on Saturday but it depends on his state of fitness. (well)
is bound to be successful
We are sure that the government's new policy will successfully reduce unemployment.
We think that the government's new policy _______ in reducing unemployment. (bound)
couldn't have been Sam who
You can't blame Sam for breaking the window because he wasn't even here this morning.
It _______ broke the window because he wasn't even here this morning. (been)
not much/little likelihood of
It is not likely that the effects of global warming can be reversed.
There is _______ reversing the effects of global warming. (likelihood)
under constant pressure at
Some people tend to do better in a pressurised working environment.
Some people work better when they are _______ work. (constant)
no intention of staying
I do not intend to stay in my present job very much longer.
I have _______ in my present job very much longer. (no)
takes it for granted
They all assume that James will be willing to work late.
Everyone _______ that James will be willing to work late. (granted)
is no college I'd rather
As far as I'm concerned, this is the best college to study at.
There _______ study at than this one. (rather)
come to a decision
You need to make up your mind about the topic for your dissertation soon.
You must _______ about the topic for your dissertation soon. (come)
had missed her flight she would
Given that Sarah hasn't contacted us, I think she probably caught her flight.
If Sarah _______ have been in touch with us. (missed)
me to brush up my French
My boss said I should do some work on my French so I could take part in meetings.
My boss encouraged _______ so I could take part in meetings. (brush)
for putting her in the picture
Tina said she was pleased I had let her know what was going on.
Tina thanked me _______ about what was going on.(picture)
laughter when she caught sight of
Milly burst out laughing when she saw herself in the mirror.
Milly burst into _______ herself in the mirror. (sight)
took/went to (great) pains to keep/stay
After I emigrated, I made an effort not to lose contact with my old schoolfriends.
After I emigrated, I _______ in touch with my old schoolfriends. (pains)
an instant/instantaneous dislike to
I didn't like my boss from the very first moment I met her.
When I first met my boss, I took _______ her. (instant)
tendency to get on
His constant moaning tends to irritate people.
He has a _______ people's nerves with his constant moaning. (get)
he had known whose it
He couldn't return the jacket to its owner because he had no idea who it belonged to.
He would have returned the jacket to its owner if _______ was. (whose)
reason why I look
I find it hard to explain what it is I admire about him.
I find it hard to explain the _______ up to him. (why)
Sue would stop looking down
I don't like the way Sue thinks she's more important than everyone else.
I wish _______ on everyone else. (stop)
had an interest in
Brian was really interested in North American history in his school days.
Brian _______ North American history in his school days. (interest)
much more populated
When it comes to population, Beijings is much bigger than Aucklands.
Beijing is _______ than Auckland. (populated)
take experience into consideration
The manager should think about experience when hiring new staff.
The manager should _______ when hirimg new staff. (consideration)
accused the bank of causing
The union leader said the crisis was caused by the banks.
The union leader _______ the crisis. (accused)
hugely beneficial to us if
Government measures of this type would be of huge benefit to ius.
It would be _______ the government took measures of this type. (hugely)
to have a significant effect on
We know that lack of sleep significantly effects your health.
Lack of sleep is known _______ your health. (have)
objected to his photograph being/objected to having his photograph
Paul was strongly opposed to the use of his photograph for publicity purposes.
Paul strongly _______ used for publicity purposes. (objected)
insisted on giving
One expectant mother I know demanded to have her baby at home rather than in hospital.
One expectant mother I know _______ birth to her baby at home rather than in hospital. (on)
I should have/(that) I have the operation on
Lina advised me to go to a private hospital for my eye operation.
Lina suggested _______ my eye in a pricvate hospital. (have)
formal complaint, they agreed to look
When I complained formally, they said they would investigate the matter further.
When I made a _______ into the matter further. (agreed)
does not earn/make nearly as/so
My brother now earns far less money than he did when he was younger.
My brother _______ much now as he did when he was younger. (nearly)
being pulled down and (being) replaced/to be replaced / to be pulled down and replaced
They are demolishing the old bus station and replacing it with a new one.
The old bus station is _______ with a new one. (pulled)
the highest (that/which) it has ever
The number of students now at university has reached an all-time high, apparently.
The number of students now at university is _______ been, apparently. (the)
disappointing/a disappointment in comparison to/with
I'm disappointed with the Fishers' new album when I compare it to their previous one.
I think the Fishers' new album is _______ their previous one. (comparison)
in spite of a/her lack
Anna got the job even though she didn't have much experience in public relations.
Anna got the job _______ of experience in public relations. (spite)
warning about/regarding/concerning the dangers of/when cycling
"I must warn you how dangerous it is to cycle at night without any lights," said the police officer to Max.
Max received a _______ at night without any lights from the police officer. (dangers)
several years since I last drove
I haven't driven an automatic car for several years.
It's _______ an automatic car. (last)
have warned/told you not to
This is your third warning from me this week about being late for work.
This is the third time this week I _______ be late for work. (not)
didn't use to like/enjoy
I always hated pasta when I was a child but now I cook it regularly.
I _______ pasta when I was a child but now I cook it regularly. (use)
would like to have carried/gone
We wanted to continue our mountain trek but the weather was too bad.
We _______ on with our mountain trek but the weather was too bad. (like)
like to express my dissatisfaction
I want to inform you that I was not satisfied with the standard of service in your hotel.
I would _______ with the standard of service in your hotel. (express)
would sooner have stayed
I wanted to stay in last night but my flatmate insisted we go out.
I _______ in last night but my flatmate insisted we go out. (sooner)
you rather I hadn't let
Didn't you want me to tell the staff about your resignation?
Would _______ the staff know about your resignation? (rather)
soon as she had handed
Immediately afer Emi quit her job, she booked a package tour around Europe.
As _______ in her notice Emi booked a package tour around Europe. (had)
only when we were in
I didn't stop worrying about the wild animals until we were safe inside camp.
It was _______ safety of camp that I stopped worrying about the wild animals. (only)
is all (that) Steve ever talks
Steve's one topic of conversation is the time he spent as a pilot.
The time he spent as a pilot _______ about. (ever)
wasn't until we (had) arrived
After arriving at the airport, we realized that our passports were still at home.
It _______ at the airport that we realized our passports were still at home. (until)
while I was having a look
I first noticed the backpacker while I was looking at some brochures.
It was _______ at some brochures that I first noticed the backpacker. (look)
it turned out to
When we got to the resort we discovered that it was better than we expected.
When we got to the resort _______ be better than we expected. (turned)
into a heated argument
They began calmly discussing football but soon started arguing fiercly about politics.
What began as a calm discussion about football soon developed _______ about politics. (heated)
are bound to be offered
I'm sure the college will offer financial assistance to students who can't afford the fees.
Students who can't afford the college fees ______ financial assistance. (bound)
call off the meeting unless / call the meeting off unless
We'll have to cancel the meeting if we can't find a suitable venue.
We'll have to _______ we find a suitable venue. (call)
turns/shows up at parties at every
Henry never misses a party if he can help it.
Henry ______ opportunity. (up)
to popular belief/opinion (,) not
Many people wrongly believe that all Australians spend their free time on the beach.
Contrary _______ all Australians spend their free time on the beach. (popular)
is due to (a/her) lack
Karen hasn't got any money, which is why her clothes are quite shabby.
The shabbiness of Karen's clothes _______ of money. (due)
until Sarah left that the extent
Only when Sarah left did it become clear how much she had contributed to the company's success.
It was not _______ of her contribution to the company's success became clear. (extent)
it hard to get to
Jeremy struggled to fully understand the sheer scale of the challenge he faced.
Jeremy found _______ grips with the sheer scale of the challenge he faced. (hard)
was taken aback at/by
Kathy's nomination for an award for bravery came as a surprise to her.
Kathy _______ being nominated for an award for bravery. (aback)
empty/unoccupied at the time of
Nobody was in the building when the fire occurred.
The building was _______ the fire. (time)
despite the company('s) offering
Even though the company offered him a higher salary, David was still dubious about accepting the job.
David was still dubious about accepting the job, _______ him a higher salary. (despite)
give her a lift, she would
Sheila missed her train because her husband couldn't drive her to the station.
If Sheila's husband had been able to _______ have caught her train. (lift)
take any/much/a lot of notice of
The children paid little attention to the dogs.
The children didn't _______ the dogs. (notice)
opposition to the proposal dates back
Local residents have been opposed to the proposal since 1996.
Local residents' _______ to 1996. (dates)
didn't say anything about
I didn't think you should mention Caroline's new job to her parents.
I thought it would be best if you _______ Caroline's new job to her parents. (say)