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118 terms

chapter 5

page 100 - 110
STUDY
PLAY
abrasion
a scraping or rubbing away of skin or mucous membrane as a result of friction to the area.
abscess
a localized collection of pus in any part of the body.
albino
an indicidual with a marked deficiency of pigment in the eyes, hair, and skin.
alopecia
partial or complete loss of hair. Alopecia may result from the normal aging, a reaction to a medication such as anticancer medications, an endocrine disorder, or some skin disease.
amputation
the surgical removal of a part of the body or limb or a part of a limb; performed to treat recurrent infections or gangrene of a limb.
basal layer
the deepest of the five layers of the epidermis.
blackhead
an open comedo, caused by accumulation of keratin and sebum whithin the opening of a hair follicle.
blister
a small thin-walled skin lesion containing clear fluid; a vesicle.
boil
a localized pus-producing infection orginating deep in a hair follicle; a furuncle.
bruise
a bluish-black discoloration of an area of the skin or mucous membrane caused by an escape of blood into the tissues as a result of an injury to the area.
bulla
a large blister
carbuncle
a circumscribed inflammation of the skin and deeper tissues that contains pus, which eventually discharges to the skin surface.
cellulitis
a diffuse acute infection of the skin and subcaneous tissue, characterized by localized heat, deep redness, pain, and swelling.
cerumen
ear wax.
ceruminous gland
a modified sweat gland that lubricates the skin of the ear canal with a yellowish-brown waxy substance called cerumen (or ear wax).
cicatrix
a scar; the pale, firm tissue that forms in the healing of a wound.
circumscribed
confined to a limited space or well-defined area (as if a circle were drawn around it).
collagen
the protein substance that forms the glistening inelastic fibers of connective tissue such as tendons, ligaments, and fascia.
comedo
the typical lesion of acne vulgaris, caused by accumulation of keratin and sebum within the opening of a hair follicle (closed comedo= whitehead; open comedo= blackhead).
contusion
an injury to a part of the body without a break in the skin.
corium
the dermis; the layer of the skin just under the epidermis.
cryosurgery
a noninvasive treatment that uses subfreezing temperature to freeze and destroy the tissue. Coolants such as liquid nitrogen are used in the metal probe.
curettage
the process of scraping material from the wall of a cavity or other surgace for the purpose of removing abnormal tissue or unwanted material.
cutaneous membrane
the skin.
cuticle
a fold of skin that covers the root of the fingernail or toenail.
cyanosis
a condition of a bluish discoloration of the skin.
cyst
a closed sac or pouch in or within the skin that contains fluid, semifluid, or solid material.
debridement
removal of debris, foreign objects, and damaged or necrotic tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and to promote healing.
dermatitis
inflammation of the skin.
dermatologist
a physician who specializes in the treatment of diseases and disorders of the skin.
dermatology
the study of the skin.
dermis
the layer of skin immediately beneath the epidermis; the corium.
diaphoresis
the secretion of sweat.
ecchymosis
a bluish-black discoloration of an area of the skin or mucous membrane caused by an escape of blood into the tissues as a result of injury to the area; also known as a bruise or a black-and-blue mark.
electrodesiccation
a technique that uses an electrical spark to burn and destroy tissue; used primarily for the removal of surface lesions.
epidermis
the outer most layer of the skin
epidermoid cyst
a cyst filled with cheesy material composed of sebum and epithelial deris that has formed in the duct of a sebaceous gland; also known as a sebaceous cyst.
epithelium
the tissue that covers the internal and external surfaces of the body.
erythema
redness of the skin due to capillary dilatation. An exampleof erythema is nervous blushing or a mild sunburn.
erythremia
an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells; polycythemia vera.
erythroderma
any skin disorder involving abnormal redness
excoriation
an injury to the surface of the skin caused by trauma, such as scratching or abrasions.
exfoliation
peeling or sloughing off of tissue cells, as in peeling of the skin after a severe sunburn.
fissure
a cracklike sore or groove in the skin or mucous membrane.
fistula
an abnormal passageway between two tubular organs (e.g. rectum and vagina) or from an organ to the body surface.
furuncle
a localized pus-producing infection orginating deep in a hair follicle; a boil.
gangrene
death of tissue, most often involving extremeties. Gangrene is usually the result of ischemia (loss of blood supply to an area), bacterial invasion, and subsequent putrefaction (decaying) of the tissue.
hair follicle
the tiny tube within the dermis that contains the root of a hair shaft.
hair root
the portion of a strand of hair that is embedded in the hair follicle.
hair shaft
the visible part of the hair.
hemangioma
a benign (nonmalignant) tumor that consists of a mass of blood vessels and has a reddish-purple color.
heparin
a natural anticoagulant substance produced by the body tissues; heparin is also produced in laboratories for therapeutic use as heparin sodium.
hirsutism
excessive body hair in an adult male distribution pattern, occuring in women.
histamine
a substance (found in all cells) that is released in allergic inflammatory reations.
histiocyte
macrophage; a large phagocytic cell (cell that ingests microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles) occurring in the walls of blood vessels and loose connective tissue.
hives
circumscribed, slightly elevated lesions of the skin that are paler in the venter than its surrounding edges; see wheal.
hydrocele
a collection of fluid located in the area of the scrotal sac in the male.
ichthyosis
and inherited dermatological condition in which the skin is dry, hyperkeratotic (hardened, and fissured- resembling fish scales.
integument
the skin
integumentary system
the body system consisting of the skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands.
keratin
a hard fibrous protein found in the epidermis, hair, nails, enamel of the teeth, and horns of animals.
keratolytic
an agent used to break down or loosen the horny (hardened) layer of the skin.
laceration
a tear in the skin
lanugo
soft, very fine hair that covers the body of the developing fetus; this hairy coating is almost completely fone by birth.
lesion
any visible damage to the tissues of the skin, such as a wound, sore, rash, or boil.
lipocyte
a fat cell
lunula
the crescent-shaped pale area at the base of the fingernail or toenail.
macrophage
a large phagocytic (cell that ingests microorganisms, other cells and foreign particles) occurring in the walls of blood vessels and loose connective tissue.
macule
a small, flat discoloration of the skin that is neither raised nor depressed.
mast cell
a cell (found within the connective tissue) that contains heparin and histamine; these substances are released from the mast cell in response to injury and infection.
melanin
a black or dark pigment (produced by melanocytes within the epidermis) that contributes color to the skin and helps to filter ultraviolet light.
melanocytes
cells responsible for producing melanin.
nail body
the visible part of the nail.
nodule
a small, circumscribed swelling protruding above the skin.
oil gland
one of the many small glands located in the dermis; its secretions provide oil to the hair and surrounding skin.
onycholysis
separation of a fingernail from its bed, beginning at the free margin this condition is associated with dermatitis of the hand, psoriasis, and fungal infections.
onychomycosis
any fungal infection of the nails.
onychophagia
the habit of biting the nails.
pachyderma
abnormal thickening of the skin.
papule
a small, solid, circumscribed elevation on the skin.
paronychia
inflammation of the fold of skin surrounding the fingernail; also called runaround.
pediculosis
infestation with lice.
perspiration
the clear, watery fluid produced by the sweat glands.
petechia
small, pinpoint hemorrhages of the skin.
pimple
a papule or pustule of the skin.
polyp
a small, stalklike growth that protrudes upward or outward from a mucous membrane surface, resembling a mushroom stalk.
pores
openings of the skin through which substances such as water,salts, and some fatty substances are excreted.
pressure ulcer
an inflammation, sore, or ulcer in the skin over a bony prominence of the body, resulting from loss of blood supply and oxygen to the area due to prolonged pressure on the body part; also known as decubitis ulcer or pressure sore.
pruritus
itching
purpura
a group of bleeding disorders characterized by bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes; small, pinpoint hemorrhages are known as petechia and larger hemorrhagic areas are known as ecchymoses or bruises.
pustule
a small elevation of the skin filled with pus; a small abscess.
scales
thin flakes of hardened epithelium shed from the epidermis
sebaceous cyst
a cyst filled with a cheesy material consisting of sebum and epithelial deris that has formed in the duct of a sebaceous gland; also known as an epidermoid cyst.
sebaceous gland
an oil gland located in the dermis; its secreations provide oil to the hair and surrounding skin.
seborrhea
excessive secreation of sebum, resulting in excessive oiliness or dry scales.
sebum
the oily secretions of the sebaceous glands.
skin tags
a small brownish or flesh-colored outgrowth of skin occurring frequently on the neck; also known as a cuaneous papilloma.
squamous epithelial cells
flat scalelike cells arranged in layers (strata).
squamous epithelium
the single layer of flattened platelike cells that cover internal and external body surfaces.
stratified
layered; arranged in layers.
stratum
a uniformly thick sheet or layer of cells.
stratum basale
the layer of skin where new cells are continually being reproduced, pushing older cells toward the outermost surface of the skin.
stratum corneum
the outermost layer of the epidermis (consisting of dead cells that have converted to keratin), which continually sloughs off or flakes away; known as the keratinized (or "horny") cell layer. (kerat/o = horn)
stretch marks
linear tears in the dermis that result from overstretching from rapid growth. They begin as pinkish-blue streaks with jagged edges and may be accompanied by itching. As they heal and lose their color, they remain as silvery-white scar lines, also known as stria
subcutaneous tissue
the fatty layer of tissue located beneath the dermis
subungual hematoma
a collection of blood beneath a nail bed, usually the result of trauma (injury).
sudoriferous gland
a sweat gland
sweat
the clear, watery fluid produced by the sweat glands; also known as perspiration.
sweat gland
one of the tiny structures within the dermis that produces sweat, which carries waste products to the surface of the skin for excretion; also known as a sudoriferous gland.
telangiectasia
the permanent dialation of groups of superficial capillaries and venules. these dilated vessels may be visable through the skin as tiny red lines. Common causes include but are not limited to rosacea, elevated estrogen levels, and actinic damage.
ulcer
a circumscribed, open sore or lesion of the skin that is accompanied by inflammation.
urticaria
a reaction of the skin in which there is an appearance of smooth slightly elevated patches (wheals) that are redder or paler than the surrounding skin and often accompanied by severe itching (pruritus).
vesicle
a small thin-walled skin lesion containing clear fluid; a blister.
vitiligo
a skin disorder characterized by nonpigmented white patches of skin of varying sizes that are surrounded by skin with normal pigmentation.
wheal
a circumscribed, slightly elevated lesion of the skin that is paler in the center than its surrounding edges; hives.
whitehead
a closed comedo caused by accumulation of keratin and sebum within the opening of a hair follicle; the content within is not easily expressed.
xanthoderma
any yellow coloration of the skin.
xeroderma
a chronic skin condition characterized by roughness and dryness.