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Chapter 7 & 8 Review Questions
Terms in this set (40)
Why is bioethanol often added to gasoline?
A. Ethanol is a renewable resource that can increase fuel efficiency and lower vehicle emissions.
B. Adding bioethanol to fuels uses surplus corn and wheat that would otherwise go to waste.
C. Ethanol is blended with gasoline because it can't be used directly to fuel vehicles.
D. It costs less than gasoline.
Ethanol is a renewable resource that can increase fuel efficiency and lower vehicle emissions.
Which of the following is a good reason for using fast-growing trees as fuel?
A. Like fossil fuels, wood is nonrenewable.
B. Vigorously growing plants remove a lot of carbon dioxide from the air.
C. There are more trees than fossil fuels.
D. Wood has more sulfur than fossil fuels.
Vigorously growing plants remove a lot of carbon dioxide from the air.
The ultimate energy source that supports most life on Earth is _______.
A. the carbon cycle
C. chemosynthetic microbes
D. photosynthetic plants
Plants are photosynthetic autotrophs. What does this mean?
A. The make their own food from organic materials.
B. They require pre-formed organic compounds.
C. They use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules.
D. They are considered to be the consumers of the biosphere.
They use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules.
Photosynthetic membranes are found in _______.
A. the Golgi apparatus
C. central vacuoles
The end products of photosynthesis are ________ and ________.
A. glucose ... molecular oxygen
B. water ... molecular oxygen
C. electrons ... NADPH
D. carbon dioxide ... water
Glucose ... Molecular Oxygen
Which of the following includes some of the benefits of photosynthesis?
A. It is a source of carbon dioxide.
B. It is an oxygen source as well as a source of stored energy.
C. It stores chemical energy.
D. It enhances the greenhouse effect.
It is an oxygen source as well as a source of stored energy.
Which of the following is produced by the light reactions of photosynthesis and consumed by the Calvin cycle?
Global climate change could be magnified by _________.
A. growing plants
B. limits on burning fossil fuels
C. extreme weather patterns
In the electromagnetic spectrum, the type of radiation that we call visible light occurs between __________.
A. UV radiation and infrared radiation
B. radio waves and microwaves
C. infrared radiation and microwaves
D. X-rays and UV radiation
UV Radiation and Infrared Radiation
As a consequence of the work of the biologist Theodor Engelmann, others showed that chloroplasts absorb light mainly in the _________ and _________ part of the spectrum.
A. blue-violet ... red-orange
B. blue-violet ... green
C. infrared ... ultraviolet
D. blue ... red
Blue-Violet ... Red-Orange
Which pigment participates directly in the light reactions by absorbing mainly blue-violet and red light?
A. chlorophyll a
C. chlorophyll b
The ________ the wavelength of light, the _________ the energy of a photon.
A. shorter ... lesser
B. shorter ... greater
C. faster ... greater
D. longer ... greater
Shorter ... Greater
When light strikes chlorophyll molecules, they lose electrons, which are ultimately replaced by other electrons obtained by _________.
A. breaking down ATP
B. splitting water
D. removing them from NADPH
The overall function of the Calvin cycle is ___________.
A. capturing sunlight
B. making sugar
C. splitting water
D. producing carbon dioxide
Where does the energy for the Calvin cycle come from?
A. carbon dioxide
C. NADPH and ATP
NADPH and ATP
Forests are considered carbon storage sinks because ________.
A. carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere through the stoma of plants
B. plants are energy plantations
C. plants swap carbon dioxide for oxygen from the atmosphere
D. carbon dioxide is used in the Calvin cycle to make glucose, which is used to make wood and other tree molecules.
Carbon dioxide is used in the Calvin cycle to make glucose, which is used to make wood and other tree molecules.
C4 plants occur more commonly in desert conditions because _________.
A. C4 plants produce water as a product of their photosynthetic pathways.
B. C4 plants can shuttle CO2 to the sites of photosynthesis even when their stomata are closed to conserve water.
C. C4 plants can conserve water even with their stomata open.
D. C4 plants are succulent (water-storing) plants.
C4 plants can shuffle CO2 to the sites of photosynthesis even when their stomata are closed to conserve water.
Zookeepers at the Chester Zoo in England reported that, without sexual reproduction, a Komodo dragon laid a clutch of eggs that hatched into healthy young. What evidence confirms this claim?
A. DNA testing confirmed that all of the DNA of the Komodo dragon babies was derived from their mother.
B. All of the offspring were infertile.
C. Asexual reproduction is common in lizards.
D. All of the offspring were male.
DNA testing confirmed that all of the DNA of the Komodo dragon babies was derived from their mother.
Asexual reproduction __________.
A. is limited to plants
B. produces offspring that always look exactly like the parent
C. leads to a loss of genetic material
D. can produce offspring genetically identical to the one single parent
Can produce offspring genetically identical to the one single parent.
How is sexual reproduction different from asexual reproduction?
A. Sexual reproduction occurs with only a single parent.
B. Asexual reproduction requires testes and ovaries.
C. Sexual reproduction requires fertilization of an egg by a sperm.
D. Asexual reproduction requires two kinds of cell division.
Sexual reproduction requires fertilization of an egg by a sperm.
Most of an organism's DNA is carried by its _________.
A. endoplasmic reticulum
Replication of chromosomal DNA occurs _________.
A. to repair gene damage caused by mutation
B. in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell
C. whenever a cell makes protein
D. before a cell divides
Before a cell divides
With the exception of gametes, a human cell contains _________ chromosomes.
The cell cycle is a series of events that occur in which order?
A. G1, S, G2, cytokinesis, mitosis
B. G1, S, mitosis, cytokinesis, G2
C. G1, S, G2, mitosis, cytokinesis
D. G1, S, cytokinsis, mitosis, G2
G1, S, G2, mitosis, cytokinesis
Which of the following is a function of the cell cycle that involves mitosis in eukaryotes?
A. cell replacement
B. sexual reproduction
C. production of gametes
D. speeding up evolution
Which of the following is the correct order for the four main stages of mitosis?
A. prophase, anaphase, metaphase, telophase
B. metaphase, telophase, prophase, anaphase
C. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
D. anaphase, prophase, metaphase, telophase
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
A benign tumor is a condition in which tumor cells _______.
A. have an unusual number of chromosomes
B. remain confined to their original site
C. migrate from the initial site of transformation to other organs or tissues
D. invade the circulatory system
Remain confined to their original site
What is the risk that someone in the United States will die of cancer?
A. 1 in 50
B. 1 in 5
C. 1 in 7
D. 1 in 3
1 in 5
Sexual reproduction requires the cellular process of ______ followed by _________.
A. mitosis ... gamete formation
B. mitosis ... fertilization
C. mitosis ... meiosis
D. meiosis ... fertilization
Meiosis ... Fertilization
A typical body cell with 23 pairs of chromosomes is called a ________.
B. sister cell
C. somatic cell
D. haploid cell
Meiosis and cytokinesis result in the formation of ________.
A. four haploid cells
B. two diploid cells
C. four diploid cells
D. two haploid cells
Four Haploid Cells
The process of meiosis accomplishes which of the following choices?
A. It provides eight haploid gametes and can eliminate chromosomes.
B. It provides for formation of four haploid cells and reduces the need for sister chromatids.
C. It produces four haploid cells and allows exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes.
D. It allows genetic exchange and eliminates the formation of haploid cells.
It produces four haploid cells and allows exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes.
Which of the following statements is correct?
A. Asexual reproduction requires the production of eggs and sperm.
B. The sperm and egg have twice as many chromosomes as the parental cells.
C. Geneticists use the terms "son" and "daughter" to distinguish between cells resulting from cell division.
D. Meiosis results in gametes that are used in reproduction.
Meiosis results in gametes that are used in reproduction.
Which term describes the way homologous pairs of chromosomes line up at metaphase I and eventually separate during anaphase I?
A. crossing over
B. independent assortment
C. genetic variation
D. random fertilization
Crossing over is ________.
A. an independent assortment of chromosomes
B. the exchange of corresponding portions of homologous chromosomes.
C. the formation of tetrads
D. the movement of genetic material from one chromosome to a nonhomologous chromosome
The exchange of corresponding portions of homologous chromosomes
Bdelloid rotifers are microscopic freshwater invertebrates. No one has ever seen a male. Thus researchers hypothesized that this species reproduces solely by asexual means. What evidence supports this hypothesis?
A. Bdelloid rotifers exhibit much more variation in their pairs of homologous genes than most sexually reproducing species.
B. Males cannot be distinguished from females.
C. Because of the evolutionary disadvantage of asexual vs. sexual reproduction, bdelloid rotifers are in danger of extinction.
D. Over time, bdelloid rotifers have increased their chromosome number.
Bdelloid rotifers exhibit much more variation in their pairs of homologous genes than most sexually reproducing species.
Accidents can occur in meiosis wherein members of a chromosome pair fail to separate at anaphase. This is called ________.
B. genetic recombination
C. genetic variation
Which one of the following combinations of sex chromosomes results in Turner syndrome?
A consequence of asexual reproduction in a plant is that __________.
A. pollen dispersal is critical to survival
B. a partner is needed for reproduction
C. its entire genetic legacy can remain intact
D. gametes are produced in large numbers
Its entire genetic legacy can remain intact
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