Terms in this set (55)
To guide by influencing the destination and the direction for the group to go.
A person who can influence others to be more effective in working to achieve their mutual goals and maintain effective working relationships among members; an individual in a group who exerts the greatest influence on other members.
The process through which leaders exert their influence on other group members.
Your ability to help the group achieve its goals and maintain effective working relationships among members.
Individuals who "handle" the status quo.
consequence of leadership
cooperation among individuals in pursuit of a common goal
effects of leadership
difficult to identify because successful goal achievement is the result of coordinated efforts of many and influenced by outside sources
Five major theories of effective leadership:
style of leadership
ability to influence others
occupying a position of authority
ability to provide situational leadership
"Great person" theory of leadership
A theory suggesting that all great leaders share key traits that equip them for positions of power and authority.
Effective and successful leaders
Establish a direction for collective effort and then manage, shape, and develop the collective efforts in accordance with this direction.
An extraordinary power, as of working miracles; followers will follow no matter what
The statement that if you do as I want, I will engage in an act that will benefit you. A negotiator stating that if the other performs a desired act the negotiator will make sure the other receives benefits.
A person who has (A) an extraordinary power or vision and is able to communicate it to others or (B) unusual powers of practical leadership that will enable him or her to achieve the goals that will alleviate followers' distress.
A Florentine statesmen whose treatise The Prince called on rulers to use craft, duplicity and cunning as political principles for increasing their power and success.
Leadership based on the beliefs that (A) people are basically weak, fallible, and gullible, and not particularly trustworthy; (B) others are impersonal objects; and (C) one should manipulate others whenever it is necessary to achieve one's ends.
four traits of Machievellian leaders
1. not emotionally involved in relationships
2. utilitarian rather than moral view
3. not psychologically pathological
4. low degree of ideological commitment
Trait approach to leadership
The belief that inborn traits determine the leadership ability of an individual.
Refers to the way in which something is said or done.
Three main styles of leadership:
Autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire
Leaders that dictate orders and determine all policy without involving group members in decision-making.
A leader who sets policies through group discussion and decision, encouraging and helping group members to interact, requesting the cooperation of others, and being considerate of members' feelings and needs.
A leader who does not participate in a group's decision-making at all.
most effective style of leadership
showing concern for the well being and contribution of group members while initiating group structure
Initiating group structure
Clearly defining one's role as a leader and what one expects from the other members of the group.
The different ways in which a leader may operate.
Situational approaches to leadership
The view that the members of the group most likely to become leaders are those who can best help it to reach its major goals.
Posits that there are many different ways that a person, group, or organization can behave and still achieve the same outcome.
influence theory of leadership
leaders are influenced by followers and vice versa
Role position approach to leadership
A set of expected behaviors associated with a position within a hierarchical group.
Legitimate power vested in a particular position to ensure that individuals in subordinate positions meet the requirements of their organizational role.
Three problems with the role position approach to leadership:
(1) Individuals are appointed to high-authority positions for a variety of reasons, not all of which have to do with leadership ability. (2) the theory does not explain how the leader can engage in non-leadership behaviors and how the subordinates can engage in leadership actions. (3) the role behavior of subordinates is influenced by outsiders who have no direct authority over them.
Situational theory of leadership
Posits that leadership is provided by group members varying their behavior to provide the actions a group needs at that specific time.
4 situational theories:
Distributed actions theory, Bales's interaction process analysis, Fiedler's contingency theory, and Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory
Distributed - actions theory of leadership
emphasizes that certain functions need to be provided if a group is to achieve its goals and maintain effective working relationships among its members
An action that must take place in order for a group to be effective.
Two actions group members must engage in under distributed actions theory
Goal-leadership actions and relationship- leadership actions
reasons for dividing leadership all members (3)
1. good ideas might be missing
2. if you participate, you are more committed to the group
3. unequal participation can lead to relationship problems
Includes behaviors oriented primarily to task achievement (such as directing, summarizing, and providing ideas).
Includes behaviors oriented primarily to the expressive, interpersonal affairs of the group (such as alleviating frustrations, resolving tensions, and mediating conflicts).
Bale's interaction process analysis
balance of task-leadership role and social-emotional-leadership role
Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership
The first psychologist to present a model of leadership that dealt with both leader orientation and situational variables.
Fiedler's three key situational conditions in a group:
Leader-member relations, task clarity, and leader power
Emphasizes the work the group needs to do; is effective under two sets of conditions: (1)he or she is on good terms with the group members, the task is clearly structured, and the leader has a position of high authority and power (2) the leader is on poor terms with the group members, the task is ambiguous, and the leader has low authority and power
Focus on maintaining group participation; emphasizing member participation in decision-making tens to be more effective
Hershey and Blanchard's theory of situational leadership
leadership activities can be classified in two distinct dimensions: initiation of structure and consideration of group members
extent to which a leader engages in one way communication by explaining what each follower is to do as well as when, where, and how tasks are to be accomplished
extent to which a leader engages in two way communication by providing emotional support and facilitating behaviors
maturity of the group
depends on group's capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness and ability to take responsibility, and members' education and/or experience
based on specific task being performed
high task/low relationship leadership behavior; for low maturity groups
high task/high relationship; moderately mature
low task/high relationship; mature groups
low task/low relationship; highly mature groups
5 steps to leading an organization:
1. Challenging the status quo
2. Creating a mutual vision
3. Empowering members through teams
4. Leading by example
5. Encouraging the heart when things get difficult; group celebration
A person's proficiency, adroitness, competence, and skill
The most important of all the five leadership practices:
Empowering individuals by organizing them into cooperative teams