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Chapters 1, 3-5

According to Dr. A, specific phobias result from classical conditioning. Dr. B. thinks they result
from displacement of intra‐psychic conflict onto external objects. Dr. C. thinks they are the product of maladaptive, irrational beliefs. Respectively, Drs. A., B., and C. endorse the __________ etiological models of psychopathology

learning, psychodynamic, cognitive

Some have suggested gender bias in DSM diagnosis. What were the results of Widiger
and Spitzer's study, demonstrating the existence of such bias?

Men and women presented with the same cluster of symptoms but were assigned
different diagnoses

Jennifer is a college student seeing a psychologist for test anxiety. The only other symptoms she
reports are occasional verbal arguments with her boyfriend of 2 years. In the DSM‐IV‐TR diagnostic system, Jennifer's GAF would appear on Axis __________ as approximately __________.

Axis V; 70‐85

In DSM‐IV‐TR, paranoid personality disorder is diagnosed on Axis

Axis II

When we are not sure that the obtained result of an experimental study is really attributable
to our manipulation of the independent variable, we are questioning the __________ of the study.

internal validity

A double‐blind study____________

Guards against the effects of participant & experimenter expectations.

A good synonym for the term "diathesis" is __________.

Vulnerability / Predisposition / Trait

The DSM uses a ____________________ approach / system for its classification system of mental


What do you call health‐related services delivered using telecommunications
technologies, thus reducing stigma associated with seeking treatment at traditional clinics?


Studies comparing therapist‐provided cognitive therapy for depression & addiction, to computer‐
assisted therapy found individuals benefitted _________ from traditional therapy than from computer‐assisted therapy.

Similarly / Equally

Jim wants to quit smoking. He and his therapist communicate via e‐mails & phone calls. The
therapist periodically sends Jim links to web‐pages that offer useful techniques & sends him automated text messages when he's likely to be at a high risk of relapse. This is an example of

Computer‐assisted therapy

David just began treatment for generalized anxiety disorder. His therapist gave him an electronic diary with instructions to rate his
anxiety level and provide a brief description of the current situation every time he is prompted by the diary. The term for this type of assessment is

Ambulatory assessment

A clinical psychologist has been treating individuals in a private practice setting since the 1970s. In a
managed care environment, how does her current practice differ, as compared to in the '70s and'80s?

Reduced length of treatment. Controlled type of treatment

Over time, the proportion of doctorates in clinical psychology awarded by professional
schools has

Increased dramatically

Compared to a Psy.D. program, students in a Ph.D. program are __________ likely to receive
full financial assistance, ___________ likely to finish faster, __________ likely to land a clinical internship.

more; less; more

According to proponents of the scientist‐ practitioner training model, clinical
psychologists should spend ______ of their time conducting research and _______ of their time conducting clinical work.

50% / 50%

What type of interview is most reliable & helps makes sure to ask all questions relevant to
making a diagnosis?

Structured diagnostic interviews

In DSM‐IV‐TR, major depression is diagnosed on Axis

Axis I

Changes incorporated in DSM‐IV and maintained in DSM‐IV‐TR were based on
__________ to a greater extent than changes incorporated in any previous edition.

empirical data

Which edition of the DSM was the first to assume a theory‐neutral approach to
psychiatric classification and diagnosis?


All editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) have been
published by

The American Psychological Association.

A librarian whose religious hallucinations interfere with his ability to work illustrates
the ______________ component of the 'abnormal behavior' definition?

"disability / dysfunction / impairment"

A high‐functioning accountant feeling very depressed about several aspects of her life
illustrates the _____________ component of the 'abnormal behavior' definition?

"subjective distress"

Which term refers to the idea that, in evaluating a behavior, one must consider the cultural
context in which that behavior occurred?

Cultural relativity / relativism

A professor shows a portion of a therapy session with one of his clients to her undergraduate class,
without obtaining the client's consent to do so. Which ethical standard has been violated?

Confidentiality / Privilege / Privacy

Researchers at a psychology clinic recruit 40 clients w/ depression. Twenty receive cognitive‐
behavioral treatment, and the other twenty are told that they are on a waiting list. The independent variable in this study is __________, and the dependent variable is __________.

Treatment / no treatment; depression level

External validity is essentially_______

generalizability of study results to situations beyond the specific study context.

__________ is a statistical method that utilizes many separate correlations in order to
determine which variables change in concert and thus can be considered functionally related.

Factor Analysis

An r statistic of ‐0.85 suggests that

As one variable goes up, the other variable goes down.

__________ refers to the rate of new cases of illness that develop within a given period of time, while __________ refers to the overall
rate of cases (old or new) within a given period of time.

Incidence; Prevalence (epidemiological research)

Researchers show participants one of several short films that vary in the extent to which they
provoke anger, and they measure the heart rates of each participant immediately after each film. This research method is best described as a(n)

controlled observation / experimental / between groups

Which of the following is an advantage of naturalistic observation over controlled

less artificiality / greater external validity

Javier is a 4th year clinical psychology graduate student. For the last two months, he has
been busy writing up an original study that he conducted in the lab last term. Based on this information alone, one might guess that the document Javier has been working on is his


Which component of the doctoral program in clinical psychology is specifically intended to develop a student's competence with regard
to clinical work?

practicum experiences

Kai is a typical clinical psychologist. Most likely, he has completed

bachelor's degree and 5‐8 years of graduate work

The mental health professionals most likely to have been trained as both scientists and
practitioners are

clinical psychologists

People who are trained to assist professional mental health workers are called


Which mental health profession below is most likely to emphasize social forces and external
agents that may contribute to patients' difficulties?

clinical social worker

Dr. Stevens sees clients who are having difficulty adjusting to stressors in their lives but who
generally function at a high level. If her client had schizophrenia or needed medication, she would refer to another type of mental health professional. Dr. Stevens is probably a

counseling psychologist

These clinical professionals are trained as physicians.


Which component of the doctoral program in clinical psychology is specifically intended to develop a student's competence with regard to clinical work?

practicum experiences

The predominant training philosophy in clinical psychology today is the:

scientist-practitioner model.

According to recent research on the topic, which two activities are most commonly engaged in by clinical psychologists?

assessment/diagnosis and psychotherapy

Dr. Green is a clinical psychologist. Her neighbor, Dr. Brown, is a psychiatrist. In which area below would we expect to find that Dr. Green has received more training than Dr. Brown?

psychotherapy techniques

Over the course of several weeks, a psychologist visits a 4th grade classroom at various points during each day to determine whether hyperactive behavior is more prevalent at particular times of day. This research method is best described as:

naturalistic observation.

The correlation coefficient tells us

which variable causes the other.
how well we can predict the level of one variable from the level of the other.

__________ is a statistical method that utilizes many separate correlations in order to determine which variables change in concert and thus can be considered functionally related.

Factor analysis

The ABAB design

is an example of a single-case design with alternating treatment and no-treatment phases.

__________ designs are those that evaluate or compare individuals at the same point in time, while __________ designs follow the same participants over time.

Cross-sectional; longitudinal

Which of the following was NOT mentioned in class as a reason for why diagnosis is valuable?

It can be determined by most anyone, making it convenient and easy

The DSM manuals are based in large part upon the 19th century work of __________ in the area of psychiatric classification.


The most revolutionary changes in DSM, including the first application of explicit diagnostic criteria for the mental disorders and a multi-axial system, appeared in


In DSM-IV-TR, clients are diagnosed along __________ axes.


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