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Kaplan MCAT General Chemistry
General Chemistry concepts that the MCAT would like to you know (from Kaplan)
Terms in this set (265)
An experimentally determined mathematical expression showing the rate of a reaction as a function of the concentration of its reactants and a reaction-specific constant k.
The phase change from a solid to a gas.
The vapor pressure of one component above a solution is proportional to the mole fraction of that component in the solution. P_A = X_A * P_total
The sum of the protons and neutrons in an element, denoted by the letter A.
An equation commonly used in titration-based problems that relates the pH or pOH of a solution to the pK_a or pK_b and the ratio of the dissociated species. pH = pK_a + log ([A-]/[HA])
A model of the atom postulating that electrons are located in descrete circular orbits about the nucleus. In this model, the electrostatic force between the positive nucleus and negative electron acts as the centripetal force keeping the electron in orbit.
Decreasing activation energy
How does a catalyst increase reaction rate?
A monoatomic or polyatomic particle with an electric charge
Scaled value used to measure the acidic strength of a solution, calculated by taking the negative logarithm of the molar concentration of protons in a solution.
What is the geometric arrangement of NH3?
What is the reaction order of the following rate law: rate = k[A][B]^2?
Collision theory (of chemical kinetics)
Theory stating that the rate of a reaction is directly proportional to the number of collisions per second that take place between reactants.
The process by which a liquid becomes a solid.
A measure of an atom's ability to pull electron density toward itself when involved in a chemical bond. Increases from left to right and from bottom to top on the periodic table.
The reactant of a chemical equation that, given nonstoichiometric amounts, determines the amount of product that can form; the reactant that runs out first.
The attractive and repulsive forces between neighboring molecules in a substance
What is the equation that relates entropy, enthalpy, temperature, and Gibbs free energy?
Magnetic quantum number
The third quantum number, designated by m_l, it describes a particular orbital within a subshell where an electron is most likely to be found. The possible values are integers in the -l to l range, including 0.
A type of chemical bond in which there is a complete transfer of valence electrons to form positive and negative ions that are subsequently bound by electrostatic forces.
Which type of bond forms between two atoms with differences in electronegativities greater than 1.7.
The part of the universe under consideration in a process or a reaction that is separated from its surroundings by some boundary.
Atoms that share the same atomic number (Z) but have a different number of neutrons, and therefore different atomic masses.
The average mass, measured in amu, of all the isotopes of a given element as they occur naturally.
False (polar molecules typically have higher boiling points as a result of greater intermolecular forces)
(T/F) Nonpolar molecules typically have higher boiling points than polar molecules
A process that occurs at a constant pressure
False (kinetic energy is directly proportional to absolute temperature)
(T/F) A gas molecule's kinetic energy is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas
Standard reduction potential
The tendency of a species to be reduced, as measured at 25 C when reacting species are of 1M concentration or 1atm partial pressure.
Properties of ionic compounds
Form crystal lattices, conduct electricity in solution, and have high melting and boiling points.
An equation used to determine a cell's electromotive force when conditions are not standard. E_cell = E^o_cell - (0.0592/n) log Q, where n is the number of moles of electrons transferred in the redox reaction and Q is the reaction quotient.
A negatively charged ion.
A solution that contains the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a particular solvent at a particular temperature.
The energy released when an atom or ion in the gaseous state gains an electron. Increases from left to right and from bottom to top on the periodic table.
Dispersion forces < dipole-dipole < hydrogen bonding < ion dipole
State the following forces in order of increasing strength: Hydrogen bonding, dispersion forces, dipole-dipole, ion-dipole.
A base that can accept two moles of protons per mole of itself (e.g., SO_4^2-)
Osmotic pressure (Pi)
temperature (MRT) =
Passive transport of a gas or solute throughout a medium by means of random motion.
Very strong intermolecular force where a hydrogen covalently bonded to a nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, is attracted to another nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine.
Two different elements that share the same electron configuration (e.g., potassium cation and argon)
Alkaline Earth Metals
Elements in the group IIA of the periodic table.
False (the noble gases have stable octets, so their electron affinity is approaching zero)
(T/F) Group VIIIA elements (the noble gases) have high electron affinities.
Phases of matter
Solid, liquid, and gas, traditionally. There are other anomalous states, such as plasma, superfluid, and Bose-Einstein condensate.
Concentration of a solute in a solution, found as moles of solute per liters of solution.
The study of reaction rates and the factors that affect them
The tendency of a species to acquire electrons
A method using lines and dots to represent valence electrons and shared pairs of electrons of atoms, ions, or molecules.
The elements that have properties of metals and nonmetals; B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, and Po.
The point in a titration at which an equimolar amount of titrant has been added to the unknown solution.
The product of the amount of partial charge at either end of a molecule's dipole multipled by the distance between them, given by the equation p = qd
A process than can proceed bidirectionally to form both product and reactant
The process by which a liquid becomes a gas
Principal quantum number
The first quantum number, designated by the letter n, it takes on any positive integer value and describes an electron's energy level. An electron with a higher n value is at a higher energy state.
1, 2, 3
How many equivalents of hydrogen ion are in the following: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and phosphoric acid.
A process in which a constant temperature is maintained.
A species that is reduced in the process of oxidizing another species.
The elements from IB to VIIIB. They are notable for their metallic character and are able to adopt multiple oxidation states.
Kinetic molecular theory of gases
A sees of ideas used to account for the behavior of ideal gases. The theory describes gas as volumeless particles in constant, random motion that exhibit no intermolecular attractions and undergo completely elastic collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
False (a triple bond is shorter than single bond)
(T/F) A triple bond is longer than a single bond.
The highly reactive elements found in group IA of the periodic table (with the exception of hydrogen).
Ideal gas law
A unification of Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Gay-Lussac's Law, and Avogadro's principle into the formula that describes the behavior of ideal gases: PV=nRT
VSEPR (Valence shell electron pair repulsion) Theory
A theory that states the 3-dimensional molecular geometry about a central atom is determined by the electronic repulsions between its bonding and nonbonding electron pairs.
A function that depends only on the initial and final states of a system, not on the path in between.
The point at which a solution is fully saturated. At this point, the rate of dissociation of the solute equals the rate of its precipitation, and no further solute will dissolve.
An atom or a substance that contains unpaired electrons and is consequently attracted by a magnet.
An acid that will completely dissociate in aqueous solution.
Concentration of a solute in solution found by calculating moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The total heat content of a system at a constant pressure, commonly denoted by the letter H.
The dense, positively charged center of an atom, which contains its protons and neutrons.
False (never multiply by the number of moles when adding standard potentials)
(T/F) When adding standard potentials, multiply by the number of moles oxidized or reduced first.
Common definition of acids as proton donors and bases as proton acceptors.
A reaction that will proceed or occur on its own without an input of energy from its surroundings.
At a constant temperature, the volume of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.
Elements in group VIIA of the periodic table.
Standard free energy
The value of deltaG as calculated under standard conditions.
0.25 (moles of oxygen)
Given a mixture of 2 gases (oxygen and nitrogen) at TP and occupying 22.4 L, if there are 0.25 moles of nitrogen, how many moles of oxygen are there?
Common ion effect
The effect by which the molar solubility of one salt is reduced when another salt, having a common ion, is brought into the same solution
Le Chatelier's Principle
When a system in equilibrium is subjected to a stressor, the reaction will shift towards producing either more reactants or more products in order to regain equilibrium.
False (solids and liquids are the condensed phases)
(T/F) Gases are often referred to as the condensed phase.
A species capable of reacting with either a proton or hydroxide, thereby behaving as either an acid or a base.
A species that can either accept or donate a proton.
A chemical species that changes color when undergoing dissociation. They are used to signal the equivalence point of a titration.
Coordinate covalent bond
A bond in which a pair of electrons originates from just one of the atoms.
s, p, d, f orbitals
What are the first four subshells, corresponding to l = 0, 1, 2, and 3?
Alternate Lewis diagrams of the same molecule that show the delocalization of electrons within that molecule; they retain atomic connectivity, but differ in electron distibution.
A rule stating that atoms - except a few, such as Be, H, and B- tend to react in order to form a set of 8 valence electrons.
A definition of acids as producers of protons and bases as producers of hydroxides in aqueous solution
deltaT_f = K_f m
A reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form a product.
A medium, commonly a liquid, into which a solute is dissolved to create a solution.
An electrochemical cell powered by a spontaneous redox reaction that produces an electric current flow; also called a voltaic cell.
The transition from a solid to a liquid.
6.022 x 10^23
How many particles are in a mole?
A transferable form of energy, usually in the form of kinetic energy of molecules.
The region in a molecule where atomic orbitals overlap, resulting in either a stable low-energy bonding orbital or an unstable high-energy antibonding orbital
A ratio of the concentrations of the products to the concentrations of the reactants at a reaction's point of equilibrium, where each reactant and product in the expression is raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient. Commonly denoted by K_eq
Part of a reaction in which a species gains electrons
An elementary reaction is a reaction that cannot be decomposed into other reactions.
Two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds.
A pressure versus temperature plot showing the conditions under which a substance exists in each phase - solid, liquid, or gas - and at which points those phases are in equilibrium with one another.
The slowest step in a reaction mechanism that determines the overall rate of the reaction.
Standard heat of formation
Measure of the heat absorbed or released wen a substance is formed from its naturally occurring elements under standard conditions.
Acid dissociation constant
An equilibrium expression used to measure acid strength, given by the ratio of the product of the products' molar concentrations to the product of the reactants' molar concentrations, with each term raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient. Denoted by the equilibrium constant K_a.
A reaction that can be broken down into two or more elementary reactions
A definition of acids as electron-pair acceptors and bases as electron-pair donors.
Atomic emission spectrum
The discontinuous line spectrum of light produced when excited electrons return to their ground state and emit photons of a certain frequency.
Polar covalent bond
Which type of bond forms between atoms with small difference in electronegativity (0.4-1.7)?
At a constant pressure, the volume of an ideal gas is directly proportional to its temperature.
Azimuthal quantum number
The second quantum number. Designated by the letter l, it means "angular momentum" and refers to the subshell (s, p, d, f, etc.) in which the given electron resides. l can take on the value of an integer in the 0 to n-1 range.
Electrons fill an atom in order of increasing energy level.
False (osmotic pressure is proportional to molarity)
(T/F) Osmotic pressure is proportional to molality
According to Le Chatelier's Principle, in which direction will equilibrium shift if products are removed?
A set of four numbers used to describe an electron's energy state (position and energy). Since electrons cannot occupy the same position in space, no two electrons can share the same four quantum numbers.
A system that can exchange neither energy nor matter with its surroundings
False (increasing pressure will shift equilibrium so as to produce fewer moles of gas)
(T/F) Increasing the pressure of a system will shift equilibrium so as to increase the number of moles of gas produced.
Electrons will first fill equal-energy orbitals of a subshell unpaired and with parallel spins before being coupled with other electrons of opposite spins in the same orbital. This method of maximizing the number of half-filled orbitals allows for the most stable distribution of electrons within a subshell.
A ratio that measures the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature.
The pH of a molecule at which it contains no net electric charge; the isoelectric point.
The patterned order by which electrons fill subshells and energy levels in an atom. The first number designates the principal quantum number (n; the letter - s, p, d, f, or g - specifies the subshell (l); and the superscript indicates the number of electrons in that subshell. For example, the configuration of oxygen is 1s^2 2s^2 sp^4.
True (a net dipole moment occurs when the vector sum of all of the bond dipoles is nonzero)
(T/F) A dipole moment exists when a molecule has a separation of positive and negative charges.
The electrode at which oxidation occurs during a cell's redox reaction.
The number of protons in a single atom of an element, often denoted by the letter Z.
The elements in the last column of the periodic table. They are characterized as being very stable and unreactive due to having full electron shells.
The point on a phase diagram at which a substance exists in equilibrium between all three phases.
A reaction in which an acid and a bas are combined to form water and a salt.
The temperature and pressure at which an ideal gas has a mass of 22.4 liters; 273 K and 1 atmosphere.
An electrochemical cell that uses an external electric source to drive a nonspontaneous redox reaction
Study of physics at the atomic level where energy is quantized in discrete, rather than continuous, levels.
Denoted by the letter F, it equals 9.65 x 10^4 coulomb per mole of electrons.
What is the oxidation number of free elements?
At high temperatures
Under what conditions will a reaction with a positive entropy and a positive enthalpy be spontaneous?
Which reaction will be favored in the following equilibrium if temperature is decreased: N_2(g) + 3H_2(g) <-> 2NH_3 ?
A high energy complex in which old bonds are partially broken and new bonds are partially formed. Charges existing only prior to or after the formation of the complex are designated as partial charges.
A three-dimensional region about the nucleus where a rapidly orbiting electron is likely to be found. Each has a unique assignment of values for the n, l, and m_l quantum numbers.
A chemical bond formed when atoms share bonding electron pairs.
Atomic absorption spectrum
The unique spectrum of light absorbed when an atom's electrons are excited to higher energy levels.
A chemical reaction that either is driven by or produces electricity.
Atomic mass unit
A unit of mass that is equal to 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom. It is approximately equal to the mass of a proton.
The transition from a gas to a solid.
A chemical reaction in which one substance breaks down into multiple substances.
A redox reaction in which the same species is both oxidized and reduced.
Which subshell will fill first: 6s or 4f?
Grams per liter
What are the typical units of density (for a gas)?
1, 760, 760
What is standard pressure in atm, mmHg, and torr?
What is standard temperature in Kelvin, and Celsius?
A set of spectral lines that appear in the UV region when a hydrogen atom undergoes a transition from energy levels n>1 to n=1.
A solution containing a weak acid or base coupled with its conjugate salt, acting to prevent changes to the solution's pH upon the addition of acidic or basic substances.
A ratio of the amount of a solute to teh total amount of solution.
Water dissociation constant
An expression of the auto-ionization of water into H+ and OH- at a certain temperature, given by the product of H+ and OH-'s molar concentrations and is denoted by the equilibrium constant K_w., equal to 10^-14 at 25 degrees Celsius.
The distance measured either between the nucleus and outermost electron of an atom or by the separation of the two nuclei in a diatomic element. Decreases from left to right and from bottom to top on the periodic table.
A system that allows for the exchange of energy, but not matter, across its boundaries.
nFE = RTln(K_eq)
What is the relationship between EMF and K_eq?
The elements found in the B groups of the periodic table. These elements contain partially filled d subshells.
Draw the Lewis structure for HCN.
The percentages by mass (in amu) of the elements making up a compound.
The molar amount of a solute that can dissolve in 1L of solvent until equilibrium - also called saturation - is reached.
The amount of product actually isolated from the reaction experimentally.
False (a zero order reaction has a constant rate that is independent of the concentration of reactants)
(T/F) The rate of a zero order reaction is dependent on the concentration of the reactants.
False (the rates of effusion are inversely proportional, just as in diffusion)
(T/F) The rates of effusion for two molecules are directly proportional to the square root of their molar masses.
Does a negative enthalpy correspond to an endothermic or exothermic process?
Which type of electrochemical cell generates energy?
Do pure solids or liquid appear in an equilibrium constant expression?
The sum of the exponents in a rate law, where each exponent provides the reaction order with respect to its reactant.
False (K_eq is characteristic of a given system at a given temperature)
(T/F) K_eq for a reaction remains constant at all temperatures.
A subatomic particle of negligible charge that orbits the nucleus and has a negative charge.
Double displacement reaction
A chemical reaction in which two different compounds exchange an atom or ion to form two new compounds; also called a metathesis reaction.
Elements that have characteristically high electronegativity, ionization energy, and electron affinity. These elements tend to be found on the right side of the periodic table and are poor conductors.
Part of a reaction in which a species loses electrons
Nonpolar covalent bond
Which type of bond forms between atoms with the same ekectronegativities?
The transition from gas to liquid
The movement of gas through a small opening into an area of lower pressure
What is the shape of a p orbital?
A statement that the enthalpy change of an overall reaction is equal to the sum of the standard heats of formation of the products minus the sum of the standard heats of formation of the reactants.
A ratio of the concentrations of the products to the concentrations of the reactants at a given point during a reaction, commonly denoted by the letter by Q. In the expression, each reactant and product is raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient.
A species that is oxidized in the process of reducing another species.
Balances charge between electrochemical cells
What is the function of a salt bridge?
A reaction that proceeds with the net absorption of energy (heat) from the surroundings.
A hypothetical gas whose particles would occupy zero volume and have no attractive intermolecular forces
A cagelike network of solvent molecules that forms around a solute in a solution
The point in a titration at which exactly half the molar equivalence of reactant is consumed by the titrant being added. At this point in an acid-base titration, the pKa of the unknown solution is revealed.
Nonpolar covalent bond
A type of covalent bond between atoms with the same electronegativities resulting in the equal sharing of electrons
Bond dissociation energy
The amount of energy required to break a particular bond in one mole of gaseous molecules.
Elements that area characteristically electropositive, malleable, and ductile. These elements tend to be found on the left side of the periodic table, are lustrous, and have relatively low ionization energies and electron affinities.
An apparatus commonly referred to as a bomb calorimeter; used to measure the amount of heat absorbed or released during a reaction.
A process in which volume remains constant and in which no net pressure-volume work is done
A ratio calculated as a percentage of the actual mass of product yielded to the theoretical yield of product mass.
A single particle of light, and the smallest possible discrete amount of electromagnetic energy. Its energy is equal to hf, where h is Planck's constant and f is the frequency of the light wave.
T_b = K_b x molality of solution
The formula for boiling-point elevation
Often denoted by E_a, it is the energy barrier that must be overcome for a reaction to proceed.
None (they are isotopes, they have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons)
How many more protons are in a carbon 14 atom than in a carbon 12 atom?
Standard heat of reaction
The change in enthalpy of a reaction under standard conditions
At a constant volume, the pressure of an ideal gas is directly proportional to its temperature.
Polar covalent bond
A type of covalent bond between atoms of different electronegativities resulting in unequal sharing of electron density. Therefore, polar bonds have partial positive and partial negative poles.
Effective nuclear charge
The attractive force a valence electron feels from the nucleus, after accounting for the shielding effect of inner core electrons. Abbreviated Z_eff.
The gram equivalent weight of solute per liter of solution, often denoted by the letter N.
Principle stating that when equal volumes of different gases are at identical temperature and pressures, they contain equal numbers of molecules.
True (if there is no net dipole moment within the molecule, it will be nonpolar)
(T/F) Molecules with polar bonds can be nonpolar.
A system that allows for the exchange of energy and matter across its boundaries.
When does a system reach maximum entropy?
The basic building block of all matter in the universe, made up of three components: protons, neutrons, and electrons.
False (an oxidizing agent is a species that gains electrons and thereby causes another agent to be oxidized)
(T/F) An oxidizing agent is oxidized in an electrochemical reaction.
1, 3, 5, 7
How many orbitals can each subshell (s, p, d, f) accomodate?
An atom or molecules , usually a monoatomic halogen, that has an unpaired electron in its valence shell.
A set of spectral lines that appear in the visible light region when a hydrogen atom undergoes a transition from energy levels N>2 to n=2.
What is the shape of the s orbital?
deltaG = -nFE
What is the equation that relates free energy and standard potential?
An electrode immersed in an electrolytic solution that is the site of either oxidation or reduction in an electrochemical cell.
The pressure contribution of a single gas in a container holding a mixture of gases, as given by total pressure and mole fraction.
Dalton's law of partial pressures
States that the total pressure of a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual components.
The process of all the individual steps of a reaction, including the formation and destruction of any reaction intermediates that may occur.
The elements in the first two families and the last six families of the periodic table.
The hypothetical equation showing only the species that is oxidized or reduced in a redox reaction and the correct number of electrons transferred between the species in the complete, balanced equation.
Certain properties of solutions, such as vapor pressure lowering, freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and osmotic pressure, that are affect by the number of solute particles dissolved.
The amount of heat required to raise one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius.
False (some atoms are capable of bonding less than an octet, like boron, and some more, like phosphorus)
(T/F) All atoms bond according to the "octet rule"
What are the possible values for m_s, the fourth quantum number?
deltaG = -RTlnK_eq
What is the formula relating the equilibrium constant and the change in Gibbs' free energy of a reaction?
Pauli Exclusion Principle
No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum number values.
A solution with water as its solvent
Law of conservation of energy
Law stating that energy cannot be created nor destroyed but only transferred and transformed
Chemical formula showing the smallest whole-number ratio of atoms in a compound
A subatomic particle with zero electric charge that is slightly heavier than a proton
A mixture of immiscible liquids which are broken up into extremely small particles.
Net ionic equation
A representation of a displacement reaction showing only the reactive species and omitting the spectator ions
The energy required to break one mole of a chemical bond; also called bond enthalpy.
A key equation in thermochemistry, giving the relationship between the enthalpy, entropy, temperature, and Gibbs free energy. deltaG = deltaH -TdeltaS
What is the volume of 1 mole of gas at STP?
Low pressure and high temperature
Under what conditions is the ideal gas law most correct?
Law stating that the rate at which two different gases effuse or diffuse is inversely proportional to the square root of their molecular weight.
The electrons occupying the outermost electron shell of an atom that are available to participate in chemical bonds.
Standard electromotive force
The difference between the two reduction potential of half-cells in a cell under standard conditions.
Type of intermolecular force in which opposite poles of neighboring dipole molecules are drawn together.
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
The quantum mechanical idea that we cannot measure the exact momentum and position of an orbiting electron simultaneously. That is, the more accurately we measure an electron's momentum, the less we know about its exact position.
False (The medium can affect reaction rate by stabilizing or destabilizing compounds and intermediates)
(T/F) The medium in which a reaction takes place cannot affect the reaction rate.
A solute, usually an ionic compound, that allows its solution to conduct electricity.
Solubility product constant
The product of the molar concentrations of dissociated ions in solution at saturation, where each ion is raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient. Denoted by the equilibrium constant K_sp.
A process in which no heat is transferred to or from the system by its surroundings.
The amount of energy required to completely remove an electron from the orbit of an atom in its gaseous state. Increases from left to right and from bottom to top on the periodic table.
The charge assigned to an atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion, calculated by subtracting half the number of bonding electrons and all of the nonbonding electrons from the valence electron number.
How does a period run in the periodic table? How does a group run?
Single displacement reaction
A chemical reaction in which one atom or ion is transferred from one reactant to another in the process of the reaction (A+BC -> B+AC)
An analytical procedure in which a solution of known concentration is slowly added to a solution of unknown concentration to the point of molar equivalency, thereby providing the concentration of the unknown solution.
The partial pressure of a gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the solution.
Conjugate acids and bases
A systematic pairing of a protonated and deprotonated species. They appear on opposite sides of a chemical equation
An atom or a substance that contains no unpaired electrons and is consequently repelled by a magnet.
The product of the molar concentrations of dissociated ions in solution at a given point in a reaction, where each ion is raised to the power of its stoichiometric coefficient.
A chemical formula showing the actual number of atoms present in a certain compound
A subatomic particle with a positive charge and a mass of 1.0073 amu.
A positively-charged ion.
The sum of all the masses present in one molecule of a molecular compound.
What is the formula for calculating heat absorbed or released by a process?
Liquids that repel each other and do not mix to form a solution
False (heat absorbed by a system is considered positive and head lost by a system is considered negative)
(T/F) Heat absorbed by a system is considered negative and heat lost by a system is considered positive.
The electrode at which reduction occurs during a cell's redox reaction.
A liquid mixture of two or more substances that has its own constant boiling point, different from the boiling points of its constituents. The vapor of this unique mixture has the same composition as the liquid state, making it difficult to separate the constituents..
False (nonmetals are generally brittle and lusterless, and are located on the upper right side of the periodic table)
(T/F) Nonmetals are found in the middle of the periodic table and are malleable, ductile, and shiny
A reaction that proceeds with the net release of energy into the surroundings.
A compound, commonly a solid, dissolved in a solvent to create a solution
A complex that appears during the course of a reaction but does not appear in the net reaction, or as a final product.
The partial pressure of a vapor when it is in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.
The expected amount of product yielded in a reaction according to the reactants' stoichiometry.
Spin quantum number
The fourth quantum number. Designated by the m_s, it species an electron's intrinsic spin value or angular momentum within an orbital. Since there can be no more than two electrons per orbital, the value of m_s can only be +1/2 or -1/2.
The chaos or randomness of a system, denoted by the letter S.
True (they can both be valence electrons. Nonbonding electrons are not involved in a bond, whereas bonding electrons are involved in a bond. Valence electrons are all electrons in the outermost shell and all bonding electrons)
(T/F) Both bonding and nonbonding electrons can be valence electrons
The measure of how quickly reactants are consumed and products are formed, commonly expressed in terms of mol/L*s
Gibbs free energy
The energy of a system available to do work. deltaG represents the change in Gibbs free energy following a reaction. A reaction with a negative deltaG is spontaneous, while a reaction with positive deltaG is nonspontaneous.
A weak intermolecular force prevalent in nonpolar covalent molecules caused by transient dipole-induced dipole attractions. Also called London forces.
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