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What are the four ways a sonographer can improve visualization of the pancreas?
1. complete understanding of the surrounding anatomy
2. persistence while scanning
3. image optimization
4. oral contrast agents
The pancreas is a ____________ organ that lies in the ___________ ____________ space of the epigastrium.
What are the parts of the pancreas?
A normal adult pancreas is ___-___cm in length.
A normal pancreatic duct may be visualized at a measurement of _ ___ or less.
__________ may enable the sonographer to optimize visualization of the pancreas.
The fundus of the stomach lies _____ to the panc tail
The body of the stomach lies ________ to the panc tail
the pylorus lies ________ to the panc body and neck
the superior duodenum lies ________ to panc neck and ________ to the head of the panc
the descending duodenum lies _________ to the head
the ascending duodenum lies _________ to the body
Imaging typically uses the ______ harmonic frequency.
the transverse colon lies ________ and _______ to the entire length of the panc
Acute pancreatitis is characterized by what?
escape of toxic pancreatic juices into the parenchymal tissues of the gland.
Acute inflammation of the panc is usually caused by _____ or _______
with acute pancreatitis serum amylase levels increase within __ hours of onset and lipase levels increase within __ hours.
______ _______ are the classic sonographic feature of chronic pancreatitis
Most often, pseudocysts arise from the ____ of the pancreas and are located in the ________
What is the most common form of pancreatic cancer?
Adenocarcinoma is most commonly found in the _____ of the panc and least commonly in the ____
The most common appearance of adenocarcinoma is ?
irregular hypoechoic mass
What is a rare cystic tumor that arises from the pancreatic duct tissues?
a microcystic serous type measures _________
macrocystic mucinous type measures
the ________ form is always benign, and the _______ form is associated with suspicion of malignant disease.
Cystadenoma occurs more fequently in the _______ and the ________ of the pancreas
Islet cell tumors of the panc are primary tumors that arise from where?
Islets of Langerhans
Islet cell tumors are classified as _________ or __________
Nonfuntioning islet cell tumors have a tendency to be benign or malignant?
funtioning islet cell tumors are more often benign or malignant?
what are the two most common functioning islet cell tumors?
islet cell tumors are generally found in the _____ and ______ of the panc
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