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Foundations & Western Migration: The Last Frontier
Terms in this set (52)
The movement of people to the United States in search of places to live and work.
For immigrants, a desire to escape oppression, poverty, religious discrimination or ethnic persecution.
For immigrants, a belief that American offered freedom, economic opportunity, and ties to relatives already there.
Those born in the USA, who wanted to restrict immigration, and believed that the New Immigrants were inferior and worked for unfairly low wages.
Chinese Exclusion Act
First federal law to restrict immigration in the US, suspended these workers from coming to this country, and denied them citizenship.
The line separating areas of settlement from "unsettled" wilderness territory. The wild, untamed part of the west.
The central region of the United States, a vast territory home to millions of Buffalo and Native American tribes after the Civil War. Settlers moved here to farm under the Homestead Act.
Klondike Gold Rush
Within months, 100,000 treasure seekers set out for Alaska, lured by the promise of easy riches and precious metal.
This act stated that any citizen could occupy 160 acres of government land in the west, and would own it after improving it for 5 years.
A series of confrontations between federal troops and Native Americans that resulted in tribes being defeated and moved onto reservations.
Land that was frequently undesirable by settlers, where Native American tribes were forced to move and live under federal authority.
1887. Attempted to "Americanize" Native Americans by giving them 160 acres of land to farm. Nearly destroyed Native American culture.
American Indian Citizenship Act
1924. This law granted immediate US citizenship to all Native Americans in the United States. Indians did not need to give up land or customs to become citizens.
Indian Removal Act
(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River.
Trail of Tears
(1838-39) an 800-mile forced march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian Territory; resulted in the deaths of almost one-fourth of the Cherokee people.
Belief that immigrants and Native Americans should dress, speak, and act like other "mainstream" Americans.
Cheap and inexpensive way to mark land and keep cattle off farmland. Revolutionized land ownership in the American Plains and helped bring an end to the cattle drives.
Settlers who claimed land on the Great Plains under the Homestead Act.
Alexis de Tocquville
was a French political thinker and historian best known for identifying five aspects of American Democracy: Egalitarianism (Equality), Populism, Liberty, Individualism, and Laissez-Faire economics.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power. Ex: The President vetoes a bill passed by congress.
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the United States. Increased migration to the west and interstate commerce. Built by immigrants.
The study of population, such as where people live and why.
Freedom of religion (establishment & free exercise clauses), speech, press, assembly, and petition.
Right to bear arms. Supported by National Rifle Association interest group & Republican Party.
No troops in your house.
No "unreasonable" searches and seizures. Must have a warrant search your property.
(1) No Self-Incrimination (Miranda), (2) No Double Jeopardy (defendant cannot be tried again on the same, or similar charges), (3) No deprivation of life liberty or property without "due process of law" (fair treatment), (4) Government must pay you just compensation for your property (eminent domain).
The right to counsel in criminal trials. The states must provide defendants with a free lawyer ("public defender"). Right to trial by jury in criminal trials.
Right to jury in civil trials (lawsuits).
Government cannot inflict cruel and unusual punishment.
Unenumerated Rights Amendment. Citizens have unenumerated rights in addition to those stated in the Constitution. Not everything can be written down.
Powers not expressly given to federal government by the Constitution are reserved to states or the people. Also known as "reserved powers amendment" or "states' rights amendment"
(1) All persons born in the U.S. are citizens; (2) no person can be deprived of life, liberty or property without DUE PROCESS OF LAW; (3) no state can deprive a person of EQUAL PROTECTION of the laws.
States cannot deny any person the right to vote because of race.
Power of Congress to tax income (graduated tax).
Established the direct election of senators by the people (instead of being chosen by state legislatures).
Prohibition of alcohol.
States cannot deny the right to vote based on gender (female suffrage).
Repeal of Prohibition.
Limits the president to two terms.
Abolishes poll taxes to vote.
States cannot deny the right to vote based on age (18+)
Declaration of Independence
1776 document written by Thomas Jefferson outlining reasons for the colonies to break the ties with England.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the Constitution, drafted by Madison, placed limitations of government and protects natural rights.
Means equality for all citizens, included in Declaration of Independence (unalienable rights) and 14th Amendment (equal protection clause).
All people have the right to control their government rather than a small group of political insiders or a wealthy elite.
The condition of those who are free or independent.
A belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence.
Idea that the government should not interfere in the marketplace.
These rights that cannot be taken away. They include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
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