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148 terms

Early Childhood Education

an umbrella term emphasizing what unites us as a group of people working with young children
has a commitment to working/teaching "The Whole Child"
What is responsive care and education that is mindful of "The Whole Child"?
Thomas and Chess
Who made the Nine Dimensions of Temperament?
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
What are these? Musical, bodily-kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
NAEYC Code of Ethics
What is widely used in early childhood programs today and was first used in 1989 and updated every five years, since
Survival, Consolidation, Renewal, and Maturity
What are the for stages of professional development?
Lilian Katz 1995
Who wrote the four stages of development and in what year?
What stage of professional development is during the first years, where they apply knowledge they gained in college; where they need advise and support?
What stage of professional development is where they bring together what they know and create a personal approach?
What stage of professional development is where they enjoy professional reading, workshops, and contacts
What stage of professional development is where they are interested in values, theories, issues, and philosophy underlying their work
to support the learning and development of young children and to care for children when families and adults are working and in training
What are two principle purposes for early childhood education programs?
0-36 months of age (1 & 2 year olds)
How old are infants and toddlers?
3-4 years of age
How old are preschoolers?
5-6 years of age
How old are kindergarteners?
1st-3rd grade; 6,7, & 8 year olds
How old are primary students?
What percent of preschoolers stay with relatives?
What percent of preschoolers stay in non-relative family child care?
49 states
How many states, as of 2007, had standards to promote development and implementation of early learning?
safe, nurturing environment and educational experiences
Centers and Schools have the tough job of providing __________________ to support children't development.
________ provide childcare to almost half of the 19 million preschoolers.
________ facilities are dedicated to the care and education of young children.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
What was passed in 1975 as All Handicapped Children Act?
What was created to ensure that children with disabilities have access to a free, appropriate education?
What allows children with disabilities to be educated with non-disabled peers to the maximum extent possible
Head Start
What 4 year old program helps children of low income families become educated at an early age?
Early Head Start
What program focuses on birth through 3 year old?
Head Start
What program is federally funded, provides before/after school care while parents are at work, and has served more than 27 million children since 1965?
licensing (annually), quality standards, and program accreditation (voluntary)
What 3 things do states regulate for the Head Start program?
___________ bring greater clarity about what is worth learning and provide educators with useful information on whether it has been learned.
National Association for the Education of Young Children
What does NAEYC stand for?
_________ has an accreditation program that identifies quality centers that surpass standards required by licensing regulations.
social, emotional, and cognitive development
What 3 things are gained from high quality early childhood education programs?
The Standards Movement
What grew out of 1983 publication of "Nation at Risk"?
_________ refers to the interrelationship between: need for quality programs to support children's development, adequate compensation for the staff, and affordable for families
quality, compensation, and affordability
What is the QCA Trilemma?
values, potential, well being, and interests of human beings
What are the 4 humanistic traditions?
Middle Ages
During what time did the church influence St. Francis, care for the poor, and care for children?
Robert Owen
Who believed that: children should have choices, teachers should be caring, and play is a valuable learning tool
John Dewey, Lucy Sprague Mitchell, Harriet Johnson, and Caroline Pratt
Who used progressive education to improve society through schooling, help all reach potential, and prepare citizens for democratic society?
Margaret and Rachel McMillan
Who used the nursery school for nurturing and loving care, health and safety, to support working parents, and to model how to work with young children?
Friedrich Froebel
Who had the first kindergarten in Germany in 1837?
Maria Montessori
Who did the Montessori Method belong to?
Rudolf Steiner
Who did the Waldorf Education belong to?
Loris Malaguzzi
Who did the Reggio Emilia belong to?
What program had these goals: psychological health of child, develop independence and productivity, and preserve dignity of child
Waldorf Education
What program had these goals: to build a free, equal, and collaborative society; to build free human beings with purpose and direction; mind, body, and spirit development
Regio Emilia
What program had these goals: learn through working together in a community; develop child's potential; develop symbolic languages; ensure child is visible to community and society
The Nursery School
health and development of the child
The Day Nursery
care for children while families worked
Plato, Aristotle and Quintillian
Whose idea was it that play is a valuable tool for learning, that education should begin with the young child, and that development of both mind and body are important?
Martin Luther
Whose idea was it that education should be for all children (universal education); believed that all aspects of development are important; believed that individual literacy was important?
Who believed that the period from birth to age 6 is of the highest importance; believed that language is the foundation for later learning; believed that learning should be personal and meaningful?
Who showed the importance of the use of picture books and toys (puzzles, blocks) to back up his ideas?
John Locke
Whose idea was it that the child is a blank slate, believed that all aspects of development are important, and believes that knowledge is received through the senses?
John Locke
Who used playful teaching and focused on the child in education to impact kids?
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Who believed that children learn through play, free of adult interference; believed in developmental stages; believed that the child is inherently good?
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Who focused on direct experience and belief in free play to impact kids?
John Pestalozzi
Who believed that the first year of life was the most important; believed that education should be adapted to each child's interests, abilities, and stage of development; believed that all children have a right to education and can profit from it?
John Pestalozzi
Who focused on sensory exploration and allowing self-paced learning to impact kids?
Frederic Froebel
Whose idea was modern-day kindergarten and training young women to become kindergarten teachers?
Forms of life, mathematics, and beauty
What are Froebel's 3 forms of knowledge?
Frederic Froebel
Who gave children special materials (gifts) and activities-using them as tools for children's learning and to encourage discovery and manipulation?
John Dewey
Who believed in progressive education; reaction against traditional forms of public schooling?
John Dewey
Who believed in greater freedom and spontaneity in play and involvement of children in the social life of the classroom?
Developmental Interaction Approach (Bank Street)
social studies learning trips that form the core of the curriculum; founders believe the classroom must allow children to participate in a social experiment that reflects life in a democratic community
Howard Gardner
Who wrote the Multiple Intelligence theory?
Multiple Intelligence
What theory states that not only do human beings have several different ways of learning and processing information, but these methods are relatively independent of one another?
Linguistic, musical, logic-mathematical, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic
What are Gardner's 8 multiple intelligences?
Bank Street College
the teacher training institute
(DIA) Bank Street
developed today's wooden block units
(DIA) Bank Street
emphasized the development of the "whole child" and interactions
Developmental Interaction Approach
where children are allowed to make choices about their own learning; importance on child functioning as a member of the group
Multiple Intelligence
when teachers teach in different intelligences so that each student can learn in different ways
When was Gardner's theory, Multiple Intelligence, developed?
Scranton, PA 1943
When and where was Gardner born?
Lawrence Kohlberg
Who developed the Moral Development Theory?
Moral Development Theory
explained as reasoning which is the basis for ethical behavior and includes 6 identifiable stages
Moral Development Theory
When you read a book with moral conflict and see how students respond in the situation
Who was once a professor at Harvard University?
Jean Piaget
Who developed the Theory of Cognitive Development?
Theory of Cognitive Development
What theory is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence?
schemas, processes, stages of development
What 3 basic components are part of Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
High/Scope goals
to dissolve the effects of poverty on children't dev.; environment set up to encourage learning experiences; attention given to providing materials to enhance learning; plan-do-review
sensorimotor (0-2 yrs)
What stage does object permanence go with?
pre-operational (2-7 yrs)
What stage does egocentrism go with?
concrete operational (7-11 yrs)
What stage does conservation go with?
formal operational (11+years)
What stage does manipulating ideas in head and abstract reasoning go with?
theory of cognitive development
when a teacher assigns students a partner to learn about a certain subject and how to work in a cooperative group
the way of organizing knowledge
the state of mental balance
using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation
when existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation
Who believed infants were born with some innate schemas; ex: sucking thumb
Urie Bronfenbrenner
Who developed the Ecological Systems Theory?
Ecological Systems Theory
What theory explains how everything in a child and the child's environment affects how a child grows and develops?
Ecological Systems Theory
What theory can you use this activity for? - Parent/guardian interaction with the child; ex: family literacy kit
the setting in which an individual lives (ex: family, peers, school, neighborhood)
relations to family experience to school experiences, school to church, family to peers, etc.
experiences in a social setting in which an individual does not have an active role but which never the less influence experience in an immediate context
attitudes/ideologies of the culture in which individuals live
the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course
Who was the co-founder of Head Start?
Who wrote The Ecology of Human Development (book)?
Erik Erikson
Who developed the Theory of Psychosocial Development?
Theory of Psychosocial Development
What theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan?
identity crisis
confusion about one's social role and often a sense of loss of continuity to one's personality
the new ego
Erikson believed that this was a positive driving force in human development and personality; main job was to establish and maintain a sense of identity
was trained in psychoanalysis at the Vienna Psychoanalytic institute and studied the Montessori method of education
Trust vs. Mistrust
Which stage of psychosocial development is between birth and 1 year (feeding)
Antonomy vs. shame and doubt
Which stage of psychosocial development is during early childhood (potty training)
Initiative vs. Guilt
Which stage of psychosocial development is during preschool (exploration)
Industry vs. Inferiority
Which stage of psychosocial development is during age 5-11 (school)
Identity vs. confusion
Which stage of psychosocial development is during adolescence (social relationships)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Which stage of psychosocial development is during early adulthood (relationships)
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Which stage of psychosocial development is during adulthood (work and parenthood)
Integrity vs. Despair
Which stage of psychosocial development is during old age (reflection on life)
Who developed the Social Development Theory?
Social Development Theory
What theory suggests that social interaction leads to continuous step-by-step changes in children's thought and behavior that can vary from culture to culture?
Zone of Proximal Development
What is the difference between the actual development level and the potential development level that can be reached with guidance?
What is a teaching strategy in which: teacher identifies what child already knows, teaches something new to add, and relates it back to prior knowledge?
Who believes that language plays a central role in mental development?
Abraham Maslow
Who developed the Hierarchy of Needs theory?
Hierarchy of Needs
What theory has a pyramid depicting the levels of human needs, psychological and physical
Who worked with Harry Harlow (famous for working with baby monkeys and attachment behavior)?
Arnold Gesell
Who developed the Maturational Theory?
Maturational Theory
What theory postulates that genetic differences determine the rate at which children attain the growth and maturation necessary for learning skills and concepts?
Maturational Theory
What theory is this an example of? - One kid in the class can add numbers before another kid in the class can.
Differential Instruction
a strategy in which teacher tailors learning activities to the needs of each child
a period of development in which a specific skill or response is most likely to occur
Inherited Characteristics
goal of quality educational program: to offer a variety of learning activities to address children's interests and learning preferences and adjustments are made constantly to meet individual needs
basic needs
to ensure that basic physiological needs are met; warm physical contact, safe environment, nutritious and regular meals, physical activity, rest
an observable, biologically based pattern of behavior and emotions, a characteristic way of experiencing and interacting with the world
activity level
the proportion of inactive periods to active ones
the regularity of cycles of hunger, excretion, sleep, and wakefulness
the new response to a new object or person
the ease with which a child adapts to the environment
attention span and persistence
the amount of time devoted to an activity and the effect of distraction
intensity of reaction
the energy of response regardless of its quality or direction
threshold of responsiveness
the intensity of stimulation required to evoke a response
quality of mood
the amount of friendly, pleasant, joyful behavior as contrasted with unpleasant, unfriendly behavior
a resilient child
positive disposition; long-term, trusting relationship with a caring adult; sense of control; persistent; identifies strengths and uses them; sense of humor and playfulness
cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development
What are the 4 domains of child development where the child develops as a whole?
physical development
What development takes place from the head down to the feet (cephalocaudal pattern) and from the center out towards the limbs (proximodistal pattern)
Cephalocaudal pattern
when physical development takes place form the head down to the feet
proximodistal pattern
when physical development progresses from the center out towards the limbs
Culture affects development
What development does this example go with? -grow up with pool, learn how to swim sooner than others