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Terms in this set (47)
What is the main purpose of a business?
To make money (survival).
What is a shareholder?
Owns part of the business (buys a share).
What is a stakeholder?
Has an invested interest in the business but is not a part of it (no monetary share).
What do some believe the purpose of a business is?
Moral responsibilities for their stakeholders.
2 examples of a business looking after their stakeholders and keeping the people associated with it happy?
-Body Shop- Ethical trader/natural products/campaigns against animal testing and human trafficking.
- John Lewis- all customers ate shareholders/given stakes.
What do others believe the purpose of a business is?
Social contract theory- Employees and stakeholders are given a voice as to how the business operates.
What is the social contract theory about?
Listening to everyone's opinion to work towards the common good.
Example for social contract theory?
The coop- works on the basis that all stakeholders are 'looked after' by the policies of the company.
E.G. The cooperative food ethical policy (fair trade).
What are all shareholders? What aren't all stakeholders?
Example of stakeholders?
6 reasons for globalisation?
-Tech change- especially in communications technology (switchboards in india).
- Faster/cheaper transport.
-Deregulation (increase in privatisation- countries now able to own businesses in other countries).
-Removal of capital exchange controls money can now be moved easily from one country to another.
-Free trade- many trade barrows removed by grouping he EU.
-Changes in consumer tastes (more willing to try foreign products).q
What do consumers want?
Every business they buy from to be as squeaky clean as possible.
Example of consumers campaigning for change?
What do the gov/citizens worry about in a cyber age?
Gov- loss of control.
Citizens- excess of control over their behaviour.
What are private papers now on?
Computer disks which can (or have) be lost by government employees.
ECHELON- screens emails for key words in name of national security- done without consent or knowledge and is seen as more important than people.
Disadvantage of ECHELON?
Gov. Doesn't care about people sending the email, cares that you're not a terrorist/content of the email- infringement of human right to privacy?
Utilitarian view of ECHELON?
Greatest good for majority- good thing.
-ID cards can lead to identity theft (carry info).
-Websites use forms of surveillance to find out about their users (log in info).
-Loyalty cards collect information about purchases (market research).
Argument for privacy in the cyber age?
Mills harm principle.
What did mill define liberty as?
What did he consider autonomy to be?
Most important attribute.
What did mill say about the state?
It should not interfere within private lucy essay of individuals unless it is to protect them from harm.
Counter for mill?
Marxist view rejects any private ownership of property including the rights over own body.
Counter to Marxist view?
If we don't own the right to our bodies who does? Will they use this for the greatest good for greatest number?
Who is David Lyon?
Professor of sociology at Queens university, Canada.
What does Lyon argue?
Surveillance is about social sorting so that different groups of people can be treated differently, whether as a higher risk/threat or for insurance or simply so by postcode so suitable 'spam' is sent to that address.
Example for Lyons?
Waitrose doesn't want to target those of a lower social standing who.may go out in pj's etc- use technology to distinguish affluent areas (park instead of Eastwood etc)
Criticism of Lyons?
Fallacy of composition- assumes that everyone with the same postcode have the same attitudes/social standing.
What does Lyons argue?
Surveillance is about predicting future- don't need to see new technologies as evil or neutral as they have most severe consequences for those who are marginalised against society.
What would create an ethical relationship between employer and employee?
Pay on time
Won't fire immediately without cause.
What is whistle blowing?
When a worker passes on info concerning with doing or unethical practise.
Example of whistle blowing?
NSA (National Security Agency)
3 advantages of whistle blowing from workers point of view?
- may be rewarded.
- doing something morally good.
-potentially saving lives in long run.
3 disadvantages of w.b from workers point of view?
- Risk being sacked.
-May be taken to court.
-could lead to others losing job- lead to person being hated etc.
Advantage of w.b. From employers view?
Could improve company in long term.
3 disadvantages for w.b. from employers view?
-company could be shut down
Might lose business and profit
Slippery slipe- others may speak out
2 advantages of globalisation?
-encourages economic growth- more jobs/employment and business available in possibly poorer areas. (McDonald's employs over 420,000 people)
-provides continous standard of service across the globe.
3 disadvantages of globalisation?
-wetsernises/changes culture norms (white washing etc- remixes traditional values of the culture).
- Faster food chains contribute to obesity crisis- promotes unhealthy eating.
- affects small businesses.
Advantage of information being available on a cyber basis for governments to track and access?
Utilirarianism- could detect terorism/crimes and therefore protects society.
4 disadvantages of information being available on a cyber basis for the government's to track and access?
- invasion of privacy (hunan rights issue).
- slippery slope- where does the gov stop? What if they use it to track on person.
-dangerous open to identity theft.
-Harm principle linked to the idea of a conservative view of paternalistic society (state take father figure).
3 advantages of running a business to maximise profits?
-philanthropy based companies with her have more money to donate/perform moral deeds of have a higher profit margin.
-increased profit margin leads to higher quality of life and economic growth.
-allows for highest monetary gain if not concerned with stakeholders.
3 disadvantages of running a business to maximise profits?
-undermines humanity- should money be more important than people? Limits input of those affected. (Monetary gain over moral)
-can cause damage to environment and communities if there are little restrictions on large businesses.
-chance of low interest in business and lower profits by ignoring stakeholders.
3 advantages of running a business to satisfy a responsibility to stakeholders?
-cleaner moral conscience rather than exploiting factors (good publicity)
-higher standard of living and working standards (workers arent treated badly).
-higher interest in business.
2 disadvantages of running a business to satisfy stakeholders?
-theoretically sidelines making money.
-owners have less influence in decisions made.
3 advantages of running a business using social contract theory?
-reduces possibility of minority being undermined- listens to everyone.
-More likely for interest within the business to grow by appeasing stakeholders resulting in a higher profit margin.
- more diverse/effective decision making as focuses on the whole group.
3 disadvantages of running a business using social contract theory?
- Harder for business to function smoothy if there is a clash of views.
- could go bankrupt if not focusing on maximising profit.
-potentially could lead to abuse of position in social contract when outlining their view.
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