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Chapter 18: The Muslim World Expands

Rise of Muslim Empires
-Empire Building
-Cultural Interaction
-Power and Authority
Ottoman Empire
-In Turkey/Anatolia
-After Byzantine Empire's decline
-Turkish seljuk sultanate destroyed by Mongols
-Founded by Osman I
-Nomadic tribes of Turkey disunited and loyal only to their own groups
-Islam's non-believers
Osman I
Founded Ottoman Empire; Greatest, most successful of Ghazis
Orkhan I successor
Muslim Ruler; similar to kings
Muslim Princes; similar to nobles
Islamic warriors; similar to knights
Orkhan I
Treated conquered peoples well:
-Muslims conqured served in the army with no taxes
-Non-Muslims payed taxes without having to be in the army
Timur the Lame
-Warlord from the steppes of central Asia
-believed he was a "descendent of Genghis Khan"
-Conqureed Russia, Persia and India with skills and cruelty
-Pyramid of skulls
-Defeated Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara
-Constantinople is captured by Mehmet II
-Constantinople was the las city of the Byzantine Empire
-Used cannons to destroy walls
Hagia Sophia
-Eastern Orthodox church; Mosque
-Capital of the Ottoman Empire
- named this after 1453 and the capture of Constantinople
Suleiman the Lawgiver
-Selim the Grim's son
-Created the Devshirme and Janissaries
-Gave religious minorities freedom to practice their own religion
-Brought Ottoman Empire to its greatest heights
Minority religious communities of the Ottoman empire.
Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then trained to serve the sultan
Ottoman POLICY of taking boys from Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers to become Janissaries
Decline of Ottoman Empire
-Holy League- alliance of Catholic nations led by Phillip II of Spain defeated Ottoman navy at BATTLE OF LEPANTO
-Finally destroyed during Paris Peace Conferences after WWI
Safavid Empire
-In Iran
-Isma'il- 14 year old founder
-Alligned with Shi'a Islams and prosecuted by Sunni majority
-Built powerful army for protection
-Soldiers calld redheads because of red headgear
originally religious brotherhood named after Safi al-Din
-Made Shi'a the state religion
-Put death to anyone who did not convert/massacred Sunni population in Baghdad
-went to war with Ottomans
King in Iran
Shah Abbas
-Brought Safavid Empire to its Golden Age
-Used cultural blending
-Military and government based on Ottomans (Janissaries)
-Empire collapsed quikly after his death
Cultural Blending
2 or more cultures intreacting; migration, trade, conquest and religious freedom
Capital city
Mughal Empire
-Founded by Babur
"Mongols"- people who invaded India
"Sons of kings"; ruled small kingdoms
Gupta Empire
Invaded by Arabs first; muslim tribes from central Asia carved India into many small kingdoms; crumbled in 600s
Hindus vs Muslims
Hindus hold off Muslims for about 300 yrs. as far as Indus River valley; Turkish armies attacked around yr 1000
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni
attacked 17 Indian cities and temples; left region weak and vulnerable
Delhi Sultanate
-Group of Turkish warlords
-Delhi becomes their capital
-treated Hindus like conquered people; 33 different sultans ruled
Timur the Lame
Destroyed Delhi in 1398; 2 months empty
-11 yr old inherited Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
-family took away empire and he built an army and laid groundwork for Mughal Empire
-Sensitive and nice leader
-defeated Rajput army
lost most of his father's land (Babur)
-"Great One"; Babur's grandson
-Muslim who defended religious freedom; married two Hindus, a Christian, and Muslim
-abolished taxes on Hindu pilgrims and Jizya;
-Made Spanish Jesui tutor his second son
Akbar's government
-Governed through a bureaucracy of officials
-Anyone could be in high office
-Cultural blender
Tax on non-Muslims
Akbar's military
-Source of his power
-Used heavy artillery including cannons
-appointed rajputs as officers to make allies out of potential enemies
- ruled a territory of at least 100 million people.
Akbar and mix of culture
Language of court and high culture- Persian;
Language of commons- Hindi;
Language of Muhal armies- Urdu/" from the soldier's camp;
Miniatures- small, detailed and colorful paintings
Literature and Architecture
Ramcaritmanas- Tulsi Das' retelling of Ramayana; Fatephur Sikri
Fatehpur Sikri
Akbar's capital city; red sandstone city built to thank a holy man who predicted birth of his first son; abandoned after 15 years because of no more water; son who Akbar honored city to rebelled against his father
Akbar's Successors
Jahangir was his son, wife is Nur Jahan; Shah Jahan was his grandson, Shah's wife is Mumtaz; Jahan's son Aurangzeb
-Akbar's son
-"Grasper of the World"
-very weak and let wife rule mostly
Son of Jahangir and Nur Jahan that rebelled against parents and allied with the Sikhs
-Nonviolent religious group blended with Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism (Islamic mysticism)
-leader- Guru Arjun- defended Khusrau; Mughal rulers had Arjun arrested and tortured to death and Sikhs became target of Mughals' hatred
Shah Jahan
-Grandson of Akbar
-Cultured man
-Assassinated all rivals to secure his throne
-husband of Mumtaz Mahal
- Had tomb built for Mumtaz Mahal/Taj Mahal
-paid more attention to buildings than to the people who were taxed a lot to help pay for buildings, war, and his living
Mumtaz Mahal
Niece of Nur Jahan, Persian Princess; Died at 38 while giving birth to her 14th child
Taj Mahal
Tomb built for Mumtaz Mahal by Shah Jahan; made of white marble and jewels; around 20,000 workers worked for 22 years
-Expands empire to greatest heights
-Intolerant ot non-Islamic people
-Reinstates jizya
-Rajputs rebel
- Militant Hindus who formed a breakaway state in the south and waged guerilla warfare against Aurangzeb and the Mughal Empire
Empire Declines
Most resources drained by end of Aurangzeb's reign; very little to no loyal subjects; sons faught a war of succession; after 12 years empire is nothing but a wealthy figure
Nur Jahan
Perisan princess, Jahangir's wife, tiger hunter, horse rider, poet, designer, great politician; real ruler from 1611-1622; made her father prime minister; later gave power to Shah Jahan; both Jahangir and Nur Jahan rejected Akbar's religious tolerance and wanted only Islam