What is life? A Guide to Biology: Chapter 4
Terms in this set (38)
Fuels produced from plant and animal products.
Fuels produced from the decayed remains of ancient plants and animals; fossil fuels include oils, natural gas, and coal.
The process by which some organisms are able to capture energy from the sun and store it in the chemical bonds of sugars and other molecules the plants produces.
The process by which all living organisms extract energy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules and use it for fuel for the life processes.
The capacity to do work, which is the moving of matter against an opposing force.
The energy of moving objects, such as legs pushing the pedals of a bicycle or wings beating against the air.
Stored energy; the capacity to do work that results from an object's location or position, as in the case of water held behind a dam.
A type of potential energy in which energy is stored in chemical bonds between atoms and molecules.
The study of the transformation of energy from one type to another, such as from potential energy to kinetic energy.
First law of thermodynamics
A physical law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change from one form to another.
Second law of thermodynamics
A physical law that states that every conversion of energy is not perfectly efficient and invariably includes the transformation of some energy into heat.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
A molecule that temporarily stores energy for cellular activity in all living organisms; ATP is composed of sugar molecule and chain of three negatively charged phosphate groups.
The organelle in plant cells in which photosynthesis occurs.
In the leaf of a green pants, the fluid in the inner compartment of a chloroplast, which contains DNA and protein making machinery.
Interconnected membranous structures in the stroma of a chloroplast, where light energy is collected and the conversion of light energy to chemical energy on photosynthesis takes place.
A light-absorbing pigment molecule in chloroplasts.
A type of energy made up of energy packets called photons, which are organized into waves.
The elementary particle that carries the energy of electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths.
The range of wavelengths that produce electromagnetic radiation, extending (in order of decreasing energy) from high-energy, short-wave, gamma rays and X rays, through ultraviolent light, visible light, and infrared light, to very long, low-energy, radio waves.
In photosynthesis, molecules that are able to absorb the energy of light of specific wavelengths, raising electrons to an excited state in the process.
The primary photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll a absorbs blue-violet and red light; because it cannot absorb green light and instead reflects those wavelengths, we perceive the reflected light as the color green.
A photosynthetic pigment similar in structure to chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b absorbs blue and red-orange wavelengths and reflects yellow-green wavelengths.
Pigments that absorbs blue-violet and blue-green wavelengths and reflect yellow, orange and red wavelengths.
Two arrangements of light-absorbing pigments, including chlorophyll, within the chloroplast that capture energy from the sun and transform it first into the energy of excited electrons and ultimately into ATP and high-energy electrons carriers such as NADPH.
Primary electron acceptor
In photosynthesis, a molecule that accepts excited, high-energy molecules from chlorophyll a, beginning the series of electrons handoffs known as an electron transport chain.
Electron transport chain
The third step of cellular respiration, in which high-energy electrons are passed from molecule to molecule, at every step releasing energy that is used to make ATP.
NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)
A molecule (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) that is high-energy electron carrier involved in photosynthesis, which stores energy by accepting high-energy protons; NADPH is formed when the electrons released from the splitting of water are passed to NADHP.
In photosynthesis, a series of chemical reactions in the stroma of chloroplasts, in which sugar molecules are assembled.
An enzyme (ribolose-1-5-bisphosphate carbxylase/oxygenase), important in photosynthesis, that fixes carbon atoms from CO2 in the air, attaching them to an organic molecule in the stroma of the chloroplast; this fixation is the first step in the Calvin cycle, in which molecules of sugars are assembled. Rubisco is the most plentiful protein on earth.
Small pores usually on the undersides of leaves that are the primary sites of gas exchange in plants; carbon dioxide (for photosynthesis) enters and oxygen (a by-product of photosynthesis) exits through the stomata.
A method (along with C3 and CAM photosynthesis) by which plants fix carbon dioxide, using the carbon to build sugar; serves as a more effective method than C3 for binding carbon dioxide under low carbon dioxide conditions, such as when plants in warmer climates close their stomata to reduce water loss.
Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)
Energetically expensive photosynthesis in which the stomata are open only at night to admit CO2, which is bound to a holding molecule and released to enter the Calvin Cycle to make sugar during the day; in this type of photosynthesis, found in many fleshy, juicy plants of hot, dry areas, water loss is reduced because the stomata are closed during the day.
In all organisms, the first step in cellular respiration, in which one molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate; for some organisms glycolysis is the only means of extracting energy from food, and in most organisms it is followed by the Kreb's cycle and the electron transport chain.
The end product of glycolysis.
The second step of cellular respiration, in which energy is extracted from sugar molecules as additional molecules of ATP and NADHP are formed.
In a mitochondrion, the space within the inner membrane, where the carriers NADHP and FADH2 begin the electron transport chain by carrying high-energy electrons to molecules embedded in the inner membrane.
The end product of fermentation of yeast; the alcohol in beer, wine and spirits (contraction of the full chemical name, ethyl alcohol).
The process by which glycolysis occurs in the absence of oxygen, the electron acceptor is pyruvate (in animals) or acetaldehyde (in yeast) rather than oxygen.