What is Life? A Guide to Biology: Chapter 5

Ch. 5
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Terms in this set (...)

allele
alternative versions of genes
base
one of the nitrogen-containing side-chain molecules attached to a sugar molecule in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and RNA info in a molecule of DNA and RNA is determined by the sequence of these
base pair
two nucleotides on complementary strands of DNA that form a pair, lined by hydrogen bonds
biotechnology
modification of organisms, cells, and their molecules for practical benefits
chromosomal aberration
type of mutation characterized by a change in the overall organization of genes on a chromosome
chromosome
linear or circular strand of DNA on which are found specific sequences of base pairs; human genome consists of two copies each of 23, one from mother and one from father
clone
genetically identical DNA fragment, cell, or organism produced by a single cell of organism
clone library
collection of clone DNA fragments; also known as a gene library
cloning
production of genetically identical cells, organism, or DNA molecules
code
in genetics, the base sequence of a gene
codon
three-base sequences in mRNA that link with complimentary tRNA molecules, which are attached to amino acids
deoxyribonucleic acid
a nucleic acid that carries info about the production of particular proteins in the sequences of its nucleotide bases
DNA probe
short sequence of radioactively tagged single-stranded DNA that contains part of the sequence of the gene of interest, used to locate that gene in a gene library; binds to the complimentary base pair on a gene in the library, which is identified by the radioactive tag on this
gene
basic unit of heredity; a sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosome that carries the information necessary or making a functional product, usually a protein or an RNA molecule
gene expression
process by which information in a gene's sequence is used to synthesize a gene product
gene library
a collection of cloned DNA fragments; also known as a clone library
gene regulation
process by which cells "turn on" or "turn off" genes, influencing the amount of gene products formed
gene therapy
process of inserting, altering, or deleting one or more of the genes in an individual's cells to correct defect versions of the genes
genetic engineering
manipulation of an organism's genetic material by adding, deleting, or transplanting genes from one organism to another
genome
fuller set of DNA present in an individual organism; full set of DNA present in a species
genotype
genes that an organism carries for a particular trait collectively, an organism's genetic composition
intron
non-coding region of DNA
messengerRNA
ribonucleic acid that "reads" the sequence for a gene in DNA and then moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where the next stage of protein synthesis will take place
mutation
alteration in the base-pair sequence of an individual's DNA; may arise spontaneously or following exposure to a mutagen
nucleic acid
one of the four types of biological macromolecules; DNA and RNA are this type and store genetic information in unique sequences of nucleotides
nucleotide
molecule containing a phosphate group, a sugar molecule, and a nitrogen-containing molecule; individual units that together, constitute a nucleic acid
operon
group of several genes, along with the elements that control their expression as a unit, all within one section of DNA
phenotype
manifested structure, function, and behaviors of an individual; the expression of the genotype of an organism
plasmid
circular DNA molecule found outside the main chromosome in bacteria
point mutation
mutation in which one base pair in DNA is replaced with another, or a base pair is either inserted or deleted
polymerase chain reaction
lab technique in which a fragment of DNA can be duplicated repeatedly
promoter site
part of a DNA molecule that indicates where the sequence of base pairs that makes up a gene begins
protein synthesis
construction of protein from its constituent amino acids, by the process of transcription and translation
recombinant DNA technology
technology that depends on the combination of two or more sources of DNA into a product; an example is the production of human insulin for diabetics
restriction enzymes
enzymes that recognize and bind to different specific sequences of four to eight bases in DNA and cut the DNA at that point; important in bio tech
ribosomal subunits
two structural parts of a ribosome, which function together to translate mRNA to build a chain of amino acids that will make up a protein
short tandem repeats
region in DNA in which a short sequence repeats over and over, a dozen or more times; can use as DNA "fingerprints"
stem cell
undifferentiated cells that have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the body; useful in bio tech
trait
any characteristic or feature of an organism, such as red petal color in a flower
transcription
process by which a gene's base sequence is copied to mRNA
transfer RNA
type of RNA molecules in the cytoplasm that link specific triplet base sequences to mRNA to specific amino acids
transgenic organism
organism that contains DNA from another species
translation
process by which mRNA, which encodes a gene's base sequence, directs the production o a protein
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