British declaration (signed by George III on October 7, 1763) which was designed to stabilize the frontier, calm relations with the Indians, and organize the new territories gained with the Treaty of Paris (February 10, 1763). Partly in response to news of Pontiac's Rebellion (May to November 1763), the proclamation drew a line marking the western boundary of the colonies, and, in accordance with wartime agreements with the Indians such as the Treaty of Easton (1758), it recognized Indian claims to all land west of that line which were to remain in force until treaties between the Indians and London changed it. The proclamation created three new provinces out of the territory gained: Quebec, East Florida, and West Florida. Colonists who wanted to seek new lands were encouraged to move north or south. The British goals were to improve relations with the Indians and asset some control over the disorderly colonial expansion westward. The proclamation angered and frustrated the colonists because it subordinated their western land claims to imperial authority and slowed westward movement. It is an example of how, after the British victory, the results of the war seemed to promise one thing (such as westward expansion) and deliver something else (a denial of access to lands of which land companies already claimed ownership). Economic boycotts of British goods engaged in by colonists to protest British policies. The first of these boycotts, in response to the Stamp Act, was almost accidental, more a result of the depression following the French and Indian War combined with the Grenville legislation than a concerted plan of action. Colonists, forced to economize, stopped eating certain foods, replaced imported tea with domestic herbs, and substituted homespun for British textiles with the result that British imports declined. Colonists soon realized that non-importation and non-consumption were weapons they could use to force the British to modify or repeal obnoxious measures. Thus an official boycott was instituted resulting in a decline of British exports to the colonies of more than 20% in the course of the next year. British merchants, manufacturers, and workingmen petitioned Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act was repealed. Subsequent boycotts in protest of the Townshend Acts and the Intolerable Acts led to even greater declines of British exports (40% and almost 97% respectively), resulting in renewed appeals from British merchants, manufacturers, and workingmen for changes in government policy. The Association, formed to enforce the boycott in protest of the Intolerable Acts, was a quasi vigilante society which terrorized those who refused to cooperate. While these acts, urged by the Chancellor of the Exchequer under the Pitt-Grafton Ministry, Charles Townshend, included a variety of measures to enforce previous Navigation Acts, the most important of them was a revenue bill which imposed a new duties on glass, lead, painter's colors, tea, and paper, and provided for the collection of these duties by British commissioners stationed in American ports. These commissioners were authorized to use writs of assistance and vice admiralty courts to cut down on smuggling. In addition, the revenue collected was to be used to support the army, to pay the costs of administering justice, and to pay for government in the colonies when necessary which robbed colonists of their major hold over British authorities in the colonies, the power of the purse. Another of the Townshend Acts suspended the New York Assembly for refusing to comply fully with provisions of the Mutiny Act. The colonies saw the Townshend Acts as another example of the British undercutting their economy and curtailing their rights of self-government, and accordingly, protested. The final major battle of the American Revolution, won by the Americans and their French allies in 1781, which convinced the British to negotiate with the Americans. After suffering defeat in the Carolinas, General Cornwallis moved his army north to Virginia and fortified himself at Yorktown, available to reinforcements from the sea should General Clinton, currently in New York, reconsider and send troops. Instead, Cornwallis was attacked from the sea by the French fleet under de Grasse while Washington, leaving a decoy force to hold Clinton in New York, rapidly moved south with Rochambeau. In the early days of October, 1781 the combined Franco-American army moved ion on Cornwallis, whose retreat by water was blocked off. Cornwallis' counterattack failed, and on October 17 he initiated surrender negotiations. Two days later he surrendered his 7247 troops to Washington. Rights which theoretically are inherent in all human beings and which therefore cannot be denied or rightfully taken away. Identified by John Locke as the rights of life, liberty, and property, these rights seem to stem from the concept of Natural Law, an idea created by the Stoics of ancient Greece who argued that there is a universal moral law which cannot be rightfully violated and which transcends all human or societal laws. Later interpreted by the Church during the Middle Ages to mean God's Law, Natural Law came to stand for standards and rights which governments could not violate, and that led to its use as a justification for resistance to or rebellion against illegitimate or oppressive authority (as Jean Bodin did in his Six Laws). The Whigs and the Whig Ideology, as suggested by John Locke's work, came to identify Natural Rights with the rights of Englishmen, and the colonists, who also believed in that ideology, appealed to this idea as a justification for their opposition to British policies such as the Writs of Assistance. Natural Rights are significant not only because they provide the colonists with a justification for rebellion but also because they are a major support for the rise of the belief in individual rights generally in Western Civilization and, particularly, the pervasive, nearly unquestioning belief in the US in such rights. These rights are problematical, however, for two reasons. They are theoretical and cannot be proven and therefore depend on public belief plus legislative and judicial support. Second, as a theoretical concept open to interpretation, the Natural Rights doctrine can be used for different purposes such as establishing constitutions and laws or destroying constitutions and laws. Treaty of San Lorenzo between US and Spain, negotiated by US Minister to Spain Thomas Pinckney in 1795, and ratified in 1796. A diplomatic triumph, it won the right of westerners to navigate the Mississippi River, provided US citizens the right of deposit in New Orleans, set the US southern boundary at the 31st parallel north latitude, required Spain to dismantle any forts within US territory, and made Native American invasions of the other's territory illegal. This was a crucial development because it, along with Jay's Treaty, significantly reduced foreign infringement on the US's territorial integrity, the possibility of secession by the Trans-Appalachian west, and the possibility of the US becoming involved in the European wars stemming from the French Revolution. The landmark US Supreme Court case of 1803 in which the decision by Chief Justice John Marshall provided the court with the power of judicial review thereby increasing the power of the court and making the judiciary a powerful third branch of the federal government. Judicial review meant that, because the courts interpret the law whenever they decide a case, the court had the authority to determine the constitutionality of legislation thereby giving people opposed to legislation another method of having that legislation considered and rewritten or eliminated. The irony was that the court gave this power to itself. One of several important cases by which the Marshall court (1801-1835) increased the power of the court and the federal government, Marbury v. Madison began when William Marbury sued Secretary of State James Madison when he did not receive his commission as Justice of the Peace which he had been granted in 1801 by outgoing President John Adams. Marshall, a Federalist, opposed Jefferson and his philosophy, found in favor of Marbury, but could not order Madison to deliver the commission for fear that the court would be weakened if Madison refused. Instead, Marshall ruled that the court could not order a writ of mandamus because a portion of the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional. Marbury failed to receive his commission, but the court obtained new power. Jefferson could do nothing about it, although he tried to impeach some Federalist judges. The US Supreme Court, the least democratic part of the government, established itself as the last word on the law and the Constitution. Scientific Expedition commissioned by President Jefferson following the Louisiana Purchase. The explorers left Pittsburgh in 1803, travelling to St. Louis where they wintered. In 1804, the expedition traveled up the Missouri to the site of several Mandan Villages in present-day North Dakota, where they wintered. In the spring and summer of 1805, they proceeded up the Missouri River to its headwaters, then overland to the Snake and down the Snake and Columbia Rivers to the Pacific Ocean. After spending the winter of 1805-06 at the mouth of the Columbia, the expedition returned to St. Louis and Washington in 1806. Journals kept on the expedition recorded land forms, flora, fauna, information about natives, maps of rivers, and a wealth of other information. In addition to providing additional knowledge about the northwest part of North America, the expedition inspired westward expansion, served as a model for subsequent expeditions, and strengthened American claim to the Pacific northwest. Meeting of Federalist party members held at Hartford, Connecticut in late December 1814 which, while attempting to take advantage of the unpopularity of Jefferson and Madison's policies and the War of 1812 and bring about constitutional reforms which would restore the Federalist party to national power, actually ended any chance of a Federalist revival. The Federalist party had grown in strength in the elections of 1808 and 1812, and in 1814 moderate Federalists took control of the convention and called for constitutional amendments to prevent radical Federalists (who had opposed the war, refused to support it, and even traded and dealt with the British) from calling for the secession of the Northeast from the Union. The convention proposed a number of Constitutional amendments on the grounds that New England was about to become a permanent minority within the nation which would be unable to protect its interests (not unlike the South's argument in 1861). First, the 3/5 clause for counting slaves (benefiting the South and West) should be deleted. Second, naturalized citizens (who tended to be Republicans) should not be allowed to hold office. Third, a 2/3 majority of Congress would be required to declare war. Fourth, a 2/3 majority of Congress would be required to admit new states (dominated by Republicans) into the Union. Fifth, two presidents could not be elected successively from the same state. Sixth, embargoes could not last more than 60 days. The primary purpose of the convention was to promote states rights and prevent one part of the country from becoming a hostage to the rest, but the representatives of the convention arrived in Washington in mid-January 1815 just after the city received the news of the victory at New Orleans and the end of the war. Their resolutions appeared to be unpatriotic, and the new nationalism of the postwar era overrode their cause of states rights. The timing of the convention, if nothing else, destroyed the possibility of the Federalists again becoming a force in national politics, and by 1820 the Federalist party was virtually dead. The first two party system had ended with the triumph of the Democratic-Republicans. Treaty between the US and Great Britain ending the War of 1812. Negotiated between August 8 and December, 1814 and signed on December 24, 1814, the treaty ended a war which neither side thought it could win and showed that the war had been nearly pointless. The Napoleonic Wars in Europe having ended (temporarily, until Napoleon escapes from Elba and returns for Waterloo), the British wanted the war to end. The US war effort had been nearly disastrous (except for the victory at New Orleans which occurred after the war was officially ended), and the US was actually fortunate to escape without major harm. The treaty had four major points. First, it re-established the status quo ante bellum. Second, Britain's Native American allies were to recover their land holdings as of 1811, but they had been defeated and would not be able to hold them. Third, joint commissions were established to settle boundary disputes between the US and Canada. Fourth, impressment and neutral rights were left without resolution. The US could claim that it had asserted its rights and honor as a sovereign state, and the victory at New Orleans, news of which arrived before the news of the treaty, gave the Americans the illusion of having won the war. As a result, the war produced a rush of nationalism in the postwar period. Revenue measure passed in 1765 which placed a user's tax on items such as newspapers and legal documents. The Stamp Act was designed to raise approximately 100,000 pounds in revenue. Grenville had told the colonists the previous year that if they objected to this type of direct tax, they could propose an alternative, but the colonists were unable or unwilling to do so, instead persisting in denying the right of Parliament to tax them. The Stamp Act required colonists to attach revenue stamps to all commercial and legal documents, liquor licenses, pamphlets, newspapers, almanacs, advertisements, playing cards, and dice. Failure to abide by the law could lead to heavy fines and forfeitures, while forgery and counterfeiting of stamps were punishable by death. The authorization of the use of Writs of Assistance and Vice Admiralty Courts to enforce the measure further angered the colonists. In addition, the groups most affected by the tax--the lawyers, press, and clergy--were also the most vocal groups in the colonies. For these reasons and as a result of the fact that this was the culmination of the Grenville measures, the Stamp Act became the focus of the first major pre-Revolutionary protest and must be seen as the opening of the Revolutionary Era. The first constitution of the United States, approved by the Second Continental Congress in November 1777 and ratified by the states in March 1781, it established a confederal government under which the individual states were sovereign and the central government was extremely weak with largely theoretical powers delegated to it by the states. Formally, the new central government created by the Articles had control over foreign affairs, Indian affairs, and interstate relations, but in actuality it had almost no power because it could not raise money or troops on its own, regulate trade, or pass laws binding individual citizens. In force from 1781 to 1789, the Articles created only one branch at the national level--the legislature (Congress), and it functioned merely as an agent of the states. Each state had one vote; important legislation required the agreement of nine states and amendments required unanimity. Reflecting the revolutionaries' rejection of unitary government, their demand for local control, their suspicion of executives (colonial governors), and their reliance on the states as a power base, the Articles did not provide for an independent executive or judicial branch. The government under the Articles had some successes, but it had four major problems--with finance (being unable to raise money to pay the national debt), with commerce (being unable to regulate trade), with foreign affairs (being unable to protect its borders), and with internal instability (being unable to enforce the law). The history of the Articles suggests that a government which is highly decentralized and weak may be a detriment rather than a benefit. Diplomatic incident between the US and France in 1797-1798, the core of which was a demand in October 1797 by the three representatives of the French foreign minister, Talleyrand, (referred to as X, Y, and Z in US dispatches) for a bribe of $250,000 and a loan to France of $12 million before talks could begin. The affair is representative of the crisis in foreign relations which the US faced in the 1790s as the war in Europe threatened to draw in the US. After Jay's Treaty and the election of John Adams and the Federalists in 1796, France argued that the treaties of 1778 were being violated. It refused to receive the new US minister, C.C. Pinckney, and it began to seize US ships. Adams, to avoid war with France which Hamilton and other Federalists favored, sent a three-man commission to France (C.C. Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry). They rejected the demands for a bribe and a loan--but not officially until January 1798. A journalist reported, probably elaborating, that the Americans had said, "Millions for defense, not a cent for tribute." When the correspondence was made public in April 1798, outrage swept the US, and that month an undeclared naval war--the "Quasi-War"--began between the US and France in the Caribbean. It lasted until 1800. Adams, fearful of full-fledged war and of the intentions of Hamilton and the High Federalists who apparently wanted war and an army as an excuse to rid the US of their political opponents, moved to restore peace with France. Although this peace effort would divide the Federalists and endanger his political future, Adams named a new minister to France in 1799 and sent another peace commission. On September 30, 1800 they signed the Treaty of Mortfontaine (known as the Convention of 1800). This ended the Quasi-War and led to the abrogation of the defensive alliance with France under the treaties of 1778. The XYZ Affair, partly because of the highly charged ideological divisions in the US and partly because of American moralism, led to an undeclared war at sea, the suppression of rights at home through the Alien and Sedition Acts, and the possibility of the US becoming fully involved in the European wars which could have been disastrous for the new nation. Last battle and only major military victory of the U.S. in the War of 1812, this battle pitted U.S. forces under Andrew Jackson against British forces under Edward Pakenham on January 8, 1815. Officially, the war had already ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814. This battle was significant for several reasons. First, it gave Americans the impression that they had won a war which actually they were fortunate to survive. Second, the victories at New Orleans and Horseshoe Bend contributed to Andrew Jackson's fame and popularity leading later to his election as president in 1828. Third, the victory of Jackson's forces, composed of backwoods Kentucky riflemen and Tennessee volunteers over British regulars was later touted as a prime example of Jacksonian Democracy's common man as uncommon and romanticism's emphasis on the desirability of nature in the raw, the primitive, emotions, and intuition over culture, discipline, reason, and learning. Laws, known as the Intolerable Acts in the colonies, which, in response to the Boston Tea Party, closed the port of Boston, removed certain cases from colonial jurisdiction, amended the Massachusetts charter, and authorized martial law in Boston. The four major measures were the Boston Port Act (which closed the port of Boston until restitution was made from the destroyed tea and authorities were satisfied that normal trade could be resumed safely), the Massachusetts Government Act (which practically abolished civil government in Massachusetts), the Administration of Justice Act (which permitted royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in other colonies), and the Quartering Act (which provided for the quartering of troops in barns and empty houses if barracks weren't available). In addition, the Quebec Act (which added the area west of the Alleghenies and north of the Ohio to the Province of Quebec and provided that the whole province be governed by Crown officials in accordance with French tradition and the recognition of the political and legal rights of the Catholic church) was passed. This measure was also seen as a threat by the colonists and deemed "intolerable." Site of a series of battles (September 19-October 17, 1777) near Saratoga, New York which brought the defeat of the British forces under General "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne, ended the British Northern Campaign which had intended to bring New York under British control and separate New England from the rest of the colonies, and, most importantly, influenced the French to recognize the independence of the US, sign treaties of commerce and alliance with the US on February 6, 1778, and begin to provide men and materiel to aid the American effort. The French had wanted to strike back at the British and weaken them after 1763, but the French (the foreign minister, Comte de Vergennes) wanted some assurance that the colonists had a chance to win. Saratoga provided that assurance, and when the British in December 1777 offered the colonists a plan for reconciliation, Vergennes on December 17, 1777 informed the American envoys in Paris (Franklin and Silas Deane) that France had decided to recognize the independence of the US. The first ten Amendments of the U.S. Constitution which were written to protect specific rights of the people from abuses by the federal government. Among the rights guaranteed are freedom of speech, press, and religion, right to assembly, petition, bear arms, and trial by jury, guarantees against cruel and unusual punishments, and unreasonable searches, freedom from self-incrimination, and prohibition of quartering troops in homes, general search warrants, and excessive bails Privately controlled financial institution chartered by the federal government in 1791 to handle the government's financial affairs and pool private capital for economic development. Bank of the United States, first chartered from 1791 to 1811, in accordance with a second report issued by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in December 1790. A central or national bank, the B.U.S. was envisioned as an instrument by which the national government could promote the growth of industry and commerce--first, by putting the government on a sound financial footing; second, by providing a national paper currency to increase stability and flexibility in the economy nation-wide; third, by making borrowing easier for business; and fourth, by tying the wealthy to the national government by purposely establishing a national debt which the wealthy would hold by buying government securities. The B.U.S. was important because it strengthened the national government, promoted the existence of the US as a single economic unit, and raised political and constitutional questions--how much power should the national government have and should the Constitution be read broadly or narrowly? The debate over the B.U.S. contributed to the emergence of political parties because Jefferson and Madison opposed it on three grounds. Ideologically, they opposed it as a force which would undermine the republic by obstructing the formation of a virtuous citizenry. Politically, they opposed the B.U.S. because while it was a public institution with immense power, it would be controlled by the wealthy few. It was capitalized at $10 million with only 1/5 of that coming from the government and 4/5 from private investors. Constitutionally, they opposed it because the Constitution did not provide for a national bank, and they argued for strict construction of the Constitution so the government would have only those powers actually stipulated. The B.U.S. required loose construction based on the "necessary and proper" clause in Article I, Section 8. Treaty between the US and Britain, negotiated for the US by John Jay, signed November 14, 1794, and ratified in 1795 despite its unpopularity which led to its identification with John Jay as his treaty. The treaty was intended to avoid war, obtain a commercial agreement, and resolve differences such as the British occupation of the Northwest posts and British seizure of US ships, goods, and men which began in 1793. It provided for normal diplomatic relations, for British evacuation of the Northwest posts, for a commission to settle debt claims and the US-Canadian border in the Northeast, for reopening trade with the British West Indies but under severe restrictions, but no recognition of the rights of neutrals or any restriction on impressment. Anti-British sentiment was turned against the treaty and John Jay as Jeffersonians accused Jay, Hamilton, and the Federalists of sacrificing US interests in order to preserve and promote Hamilton's policies which depended to a considerable degree on retaining good relations with Britain. The treaty had at least three results: it weakened the Federalist party, it motivated the Jeffersonians to organize for the elections of 1796, and it induced Spain to sign the Pinckney Treaty (Treaty of San Lorenzo). The two treaties were important for reducing foreign infringement on US territory, for reducing the possibility of the secession of the Trans-Appalachian region, and for reducing the possibility of the US becoming involved in the European wars. Four laws passed by the Federalist-dominated Congress in 1798 in response to the crisis with France and the Quasi-War. An attack by the High Federalists on their political enemies the Democratic-Republicans, these laws placed severe restrictions on recent immigrants and on freedom of speech. There were three alien acts which first, extended the period required to become a citizen from five to fourteen years; second, authorized the president to deport any noncitizens considered a threat to the public safety; and third, authorized the president to arrest or deport any noncitizens subject to an enemy power. The Sedition Act set fines and jail terms for persons advocating disobedience to federal law or printing or speaking "false, scandalous, and malicious" statements against "the government of the US or the President of the US." Note the Vice President, who was Thomas Jefferson, was not included, and that was because the laws, strongly partisan, were directed against Jefferson and his party. Several Jeffersonian newspaper publishers were recent immigrants, and the Sedition Act led to fourteen prosecutions. The Sedition Act was an attack on the First Amendment rights of speech, press, and belief. The Federalists argued that the Jeffersonians identified with France, were intent on destroying the republic, and therefore had to be stopped. Hence, these acts are an example of how, at various times in US history, restrictions on freedom have been carried out in the name of protecting freedom. One result of the Alien and Sedition Acts was the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions. (1768-1813): Shawnee chief who led one of the most successful efforts to unite the tribes west of the Appalachians and thereby resist the westward expansion of whites and preserve Native American culture. Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa, known to whites as "The Prophet," were two of several visionary leaders who appeared among the eastern woodlands tribes in the 1790s and early 1800s and who led movements to save Native American culture which was near collapse. Inspired by the Second Great Awakening (occurring in the white culture ca. 1800) and reacting to the cultural destruction wreaked on the tribes by contact with the whites and the loss of their land and cultural ways, Tenskwatawa in 1805 called for a religious and cultural revival similar to efforts by Alexander McGillivray among the Creeks in the 1790s and Handsome Lake among the Seneca ca. 1800. Once the Native Americans had returned to their old values and banished white ways (including alcohol), Tenskwatawa prophesied that God would return the world to the way it was before the arrival of whites. While Tenskwatawa preached, Tecumseh undertook the organization of the tribes of the Old Northwest plus others such as the southern Creeks into a confederation able to withstand the white advance. Basically a defensive organization, Tecumseh's confederation was a viewed as a threat by all Westerners. When Tecumseh and the Shawnee refused to sign the Treaty of Fort Wayne (1809) by which Miami and Delaware chiefs had relinquished claims to much of western and central Indiana, William Henry Harrison the governor of Indiana Territory attacked the village of Tippecanoe and defeated Tenskwatawa in September 1811 while Tecumseh was negotiating with tribes south of the Ohio River. Tecumseh, never a British agent earlier, then joined with the British and subsequently died at the Battle of the Thames in 1813 in Canada during the War of 1812. With the defeat in the War of 1812, the military power of the eastern woodlands tribes was destroyed, and they could not meaningfully resist the whites' westward advance. Nationalists from the South and West elected to Congress in 1810 who urged sterner measures to protect American interests, advocated expansion, and called for war with Great Britain. The westerners desired the annexation of Canada, while the southerners wanted to annex Florida and Texas. As spokesmen for their sections they expressed the expansionist tendencies of the southern planter and western frontiersman. They considered the British responsible for inciting the Indians in the Northwest and called for decisive action against them. Among their leaders were Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Thomas Hart Benton, Richard M. Johnson, William Lowndes, Langdon Cheves, Felix Grundy, and Peter B. Porter.