What is Life? A Guide to Biology: Chapter 7
Terms in this set (25)
Alternative versions of a gene.
The greater resemblance of offspring to parents than to other individuals in the population, a consequence of the passing of characteristics from parents to offspring through their genes.
Describes an allele that masks the phenotypic effect of the other, recessive, allele for a trait; the phenotype shows the effect of the dominant allele in both homozygous and heterozygous genotypes.
A breeding experiment in which organisms that differ in one or more traits are mated,
Describes the genotype of a trait for which the two alleles are the same.
Describes the genotype of a trait for which the two alleles an individual carries differ from each other.
Mendel's law of segregation
During the formation of gametes, the two alleles for a gene separate, so that half the gametes carry one allele, and half of the gametes carry the other.
The manifested structure, function, and behaviors of an individual; the expression of the genotype of an organism.
The genes that an organism carries for a particular trait; also, collectively, an organism's genetic composition.
A diagram showing the possible outcomes of a cross between two individuals; the possible crosses are shown in the manner of a multiplication table.
A trait that is determined by instructions on only one gene; examples are a cleft chin, a widow's peak, and unattached earlobes
Describes a population of organisms in which, for a given trait, the offspring of crosses of individuals within the population always show the same trait; thus, the offspring of pea plants that are true-breeding for round peas always have round peas,
Describes an allele whose phenotypic effect is masked by a dominant allele for a trait.
In genetics, a type of family tree that maps the occurrence of a trait in a family,
An individual who carries one allele for a recessive trait and who does not exhibit the trait; if two carriers mate they may produce offspring who do exhibit the trait,
The case in which the heterozygote displays characteristics of both alleles.
Effects from alleles of multiple genes that all contribute to the ultimate phenotype for a given characteristic,
Mendel's law of independent assortment
Allele pairs for different genes separate independently in meiosis, so the inheritance of one trait generally does not influence the inheritance of another trait (the exception, unknown to Mendel, occurs with linked genes).
Genes that are close to each other on a chromosome, and so are more likely than others to be inherited together,
The case in which a single gene has more than two possible alleles,
A trait controlled by a gene on a sex chromosome,
Describes a trait that is influenced by multiple different genes.
A mating in which a homozygous recessive individual is bred to an individual of unknown genotype that shows the dominant phenotype; this type of cross can reveal the unknown genotype by the observed characteristics, or phenotype, of the offspring,
A phenomenon in which an individual gene influences multiple traits
The case in which the heterozygote has a phenotype intermediate between those of the two homozygotes; an example is pink snapdragons, whose appearance is intermediate between homozygous for white flowers and homozygous for red flowers,
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