Terms in this set (40)
Passenger (fetus & placenta)
the way the fetus/placenta moves through the birth canal is determined by several interacting factors: the size of the fetal head, fetal presentation, fetal lie, fetal attitude, and fetal position.
primary and secondary (involuntary and voluntary)
Five P's of labor
passenger, passageway, powers, position of the mother, and psychologic response
membranous filled spaces that are located where the sutures in the fetal/neonatal skull intersect
overlapping of the bones of the fetal skull that occurs during childbirth. Temporarily changes the shape and facilitates the skull's passage through the birth canal
part of the fetus that enters the pelvic inlet first and leads through the birth canal during labor. The three main types are cephalic, breech, shoulder.
part of the fetal body that is first felt by the examining finger during a vaginal exam. The four types are occiput, chin (mentum), sacrum, scapula
presentation that occurs when the fetal head is fully flexed, making the fetal occiput the part first felt by the examining finger
relationship of the fetal spine (long axis) to the maternal spine (long axis)
relationship of fetal body parts to one another
largest transverse diameter of the fetal skull
smallest anteroposterior diameter of the fetal skull to enter the maternal pelvis when the fetal head is in complete flexion
relationship of the fetal presenting part (occiput, mentum, sacrum, scapula) to the four quadrants of the maternal pelvis
occurs when the largest transverse diameter of the presenting part has passed through the pelvic inlet and into the true pelvis, reaching the level of the ischial spines
measured in cm in relation to the ischial spine. At ischial spine would be 0.
the progress of the presenting part through the pelvis
process of shortening and thinning of the cervix during the first stage of labor. Progress is expressed in 0-100%.
enlargement and widening of the cervical opening (os) and the cervical canal that occurs during labor. Progress is expressed in cm from less than 1 cm to 10cm when complete.
descent of the fetal presenting part into the true pelvis approximately 2 weeks before term in the primigravida and in the multiparous woman once true labor is in progress
involuntary uterine contraction
primary powers of labor. They are responsible for dilation and effacement.
voluntary bearing down efforts
Secondary powers of labor accomplished when the woman bears down or pushes.
brownish or blood-tinged cervical mucoid discharge representing the passage of the mucous plug as the cervix ripens in preparation for labor.
cardinal movements of labor
term used to refer to the 7 movements of the fetus in a vertex presentation as it turns and adjusts its head to facilitate passage through the maternal birth canal.
As soon as the descending head meets resistance from the cervix, pelvic wall, or pelvic floor, it normally flexes, so that the chin is brought into closer contact with the fetal chest
begins at the level of the ischial spines but is not completed until the presenting part reaches the lower pelvis. As the occiput rotates anteriorly, the face rotates posteriorly. With each contraction the fetal head is guided by the bony pelvis and the muscles of the pelvic floor. Eventually the occiput will be in the midline beneath the pubic arch. The head is almost always rotated by the time it reaches the pelvic floor
When the fetal head reaches the perineum for birth, it is deflected anteriorly by the perineum. The occiput passes under the lower border of the symphysis pubis first, and then the head emerges by extension: first the occiput, then the face, and finally the chin
The 45-degree turn realigns the infant's head with her or his back and shoulders. The head can then be seen to rotate further. This external rotation occurs as the shoulders engage and descend in maneuvers similar to those of the head
After the head is born it rotates briefly to the position it occupied when it was engaged in the inlet.
After birth of the shoulders, the head and shoulders are lifted up toward the mother's pubic bone and the trunk of the baby is born by flexing it laterally in the direction of the symphysis pubis. When the baby has completely emerged, birth is complete, and the second stage of labor ends.
term used to refer to the maternal urge to bear down, which occurs when the fetal presenting part reaches the perineal floor stimulating stretch receptors and causing release of oxytocin
pushing method characterized by a closed glottis with prolonged breath holding and bearing down. Not the maneuver used anymore.
first stage of labor
begins with the onset of regular uterine contractions and ends with full dilation of the cervix; has three phases-latent, active, transition
In first time pregnancy phase can last up to 20 hours
Dilate 0-3 cm
Uterine contraction frequency q 3-30 min
Uterine contraction duration 20-40 sec
Dilate 4-7 cm
Uterine contraction frequency q 2-5 min
Uterine contraction duration 40-60 sec
Dilate 8-10 cm
Uterine contraction frequency q 1-2 min
Uterine contraction duration q 60-90 sec
Transition (shortest 2hr or less)
Vomiting-from surge of hormones
Uncontrolled shaking-hormonal change
four factors that affect fetal circulation
maternal position, maternal blood pressure, uterine contractions, umbilical cord blood flow
term used when the spines are parallel
term used when the spines are perpendicular (at right angles)
most common type of fetal attitude
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