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purpose of ligature ties?

hold archwire in place and are tied to the brackets

the purpose of the bite place in a Hawley retainer is to:

open the vertical bite relationship, thus correcting an OVERBITE

Use: brass wire or flexible mm ruler
Lay the wire over the contact points of bicuspids and incisal edges of anterior teeth.
Measurement is take from the mesial of the 1st molar to the mesial of the 1st molar of the opposite side.

Archwire Circumference

Use: Use millimeter ruler to measure distance on bow divider and record
Distance from cusp to cusp

Arch width

materials needed for brass wire SEPARATORS:

howe pliers, locking hemostats, brass wire, wire cutters ( pin and ligature pliers) wire bending pliers, condenser or similar instrument.

3 most common types of separators:

kelsing springs (TP Springs)
Brass wire
elastic separators

Elastic separators can cause problems if?

they slip subgingivally, cause too much separation, interfere with normal occlusion, remain on the teeth after bands have been placed.

materials needed for wire LIGATION:

wire ligatures
ligature pliers
wire cutters ( pin & ligature cutters)

Materials needed for elastic ortho separators:

elastic ortho separators
separator forcepts
scaler or explorer (for removal)

steps to placing ortho bonded brackets:

1)brackets are arranged in order
2)teeth are coronal polished to remove stains, pellicle, plaque
3)teeth are isolated using cotton rolls or cheeck retractors
4)posphoric acid solution (etch) is applied to the tooth for 20- 30 secs the rinsed
5)clear bonding agent is painted on teeth
6)composite material applied to the bracket and bonded to the tooth

what does the bonding agent do when bonding brackets?

locks onto the tooth and then the composite sticks to boding agent

what should be done with the twists when placing wire ligatures? and why?

cut about 3mm with pin and ligature cutters and tuck under the bracket corner, gingivally or interproximally
to avoid irritation of lips and cheeks

steps for removal of wire ligature ties:

using a wire cutter, snip the ligature wire opposite the pigtail twist
remove the ligature wire, being careful not to injure tissue or loosen the bracket

if archwire wont properly seat the RDA should?

-check end of archwire for roughness
-check for debris in buccal tubes and brackets
-observe torque (twist) of the archwire it may be bending in the buccal tube
-consult with dentist if problem persists

steps for placing ELASTIC ligatures:

1) seat the archwire into the buccal tubes and center at median
2) push archwire into brackets gently
3) place elastic ligatures onto the ligature plier holding firmly
4) guide the elastic ligature over the bracket wings one corner at a time
5) proceed to the next bracket until all brackets on arch have been ligated

materials needed for placement of elastic ligatures:

elastic ligatures, elastic ligature pliers (locking hemostats), prepped archwire

when removing wire ligatures you should be careful not to?

injure tissue , loosen brackets

types of separators?

TP Springs (kelsing spring, coil springs), elastic separators, brass wire separators

what is the purpose of a hawes retainer?

widen the palate when the teeth are in crossbite condition

one or more of the upper teeth or cusps are inside the lower teeth or cusps during occlusion


where is the separator placed?

around the tooth

most common used separators?

elastic separators, brass wire separators, TP Springs ( Kelsing springs, Coil springs)

determine the amount of space available for tooth movement in relationship to the nuber and size of teeth present

intra oral measurements

where is the buccal tube and headgear tube located?

the most posterior tooth banded or bonded

the purpose of a band?

to secure a bracket, buccal tube and or headgear tube to a tooth

the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary 1st molar is mesial to the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar

Class II

Branch of dentistry which deals with the correction, interception, and prevention of maloccusions of the teeth and dental arches


helix (coil spring)

activating coill

intra oral measurements consist of?

tooth size, arch width and circumference, overbite and overjet

use: bow divider
measure the distance from the tip of the cusp of the left cuspid to the tip of the cusp of the right cuspid

arch width

arch length:

half of arch circumference

use: brass wire or flexible mm ruler
lay wire over contact point of bicuspids and incisal edges of anterior teeth
measurement is is taken from mesial of 1st molar on the opposite side
straighten the brass wire & measure the length on a ruler. * you can also use flexible ruler

arch circumference

materials needed for intra oral or model measurements:

bow divider
boley gauge
brass wire or flexible mm ruler

materials needed for placement of elstic ligatures?

elastic ligtures
elastic ligature pliers (locking hemostats)
prepped archwire

what is the purpose of separators?

cause the teeth to move apart (separate) enough so that a band can be placed onto the tooth

small rubber bands placed intraorally which are used to exert pressure to assist in the adjustments of the jaws and the teeth

intermaxillary elastics

upper arch is?


curvature on upper and lower arch is called?

curve of spee

xray of the skull from one side

cephlometric xray

intra oral measurements consist of?

tooth size, arch width and circumference, overbite and overjet

how can a bracket be placed?

directly bonded onto the tooth or welded onto a band which is then cemented onto the tooth.

also used to correct crossbite and other malocclusion problems:

intermaxillary elastics

curve of spee is usually charted on a?

cephlometric head film

archwires are measured in?

1/1000 ths of an inch


held in place "tied"

what are two ways to secure an archwire?

wire ligature ties or elastic ligature ties

lower arch is?


self ligating brackets
widely being used today. Brackets have a door type device that replaces the need for ties or elastics.

damon system

ortho diagnostic aids are?

study models, photographs, intra oral measurements, cephlometric xray, panorex or full mouth,

orthodontic bands and brackets are checked at each apt to see if?

they are loose or if they have any rough edges

2 types of retainers?

hawes (jackscrew, palatal expander) hawley retainers

removable device which is used to retain (hold) teeth in place after active orthodontic tx is completed.
Also used to create minor teeth movement instead of or in addition to banding


where should steel spring separators and brass wire separators be disposed?

sharps container

how many times can you use steel spring or brass wire separators?

they are a one time use

what way is the archwire bent after it is inserted into the buccal tube?


archwires only come in one shape: truth or false?

wires come in various shapes for different purposes

where is the bracket placed?

middle 1/3 of the crown of the tooth

device which holds the archwire in place around the arch?


thin sheet of metal which is cemented around a tooth


method that uses the relationship of the maxillary and mandibular FIRST molars to define 3 broad classifications of malocclusion

edward angle method

how and why is an archwire activated?

the archwire is "bent" by the orthodontist to cause movement of the teeth

most widely accepted method for classifying malocclusion was developed by?

edward angle

molars are in normal relationship. the mesiobuccal cusp of the upper 1st molar occludes with the buccal groove of the lower 1st molar. *anterior teeth may be crowded or rotated

class I

most common method for taking ortho measurements is on?

study models

ortho measurements can be taken?

intraorally and on study models

another name for TP separators?

kelsing springs, coil springs

if brackets are bonded directly to teeth you wil not need separators since no extra space will be needed for a band: true or false?


why should twists on wire ligatures be cut off and tucked under the bracket?

to avoid irritation of lips and cheeks

when placing ligatures why should you not twist them too tight?

because they might break

what is a reason why a dentist might still use a band?

severely turned or rotated teeth or for molars



what is the most common way to place brackets no a days?

directly bonded to the tooth

how many days prior to bonding are elastic, brass wire and TP separators placed?

2 to 3 days

upper and lower anteriors do not occlude leaving an open space between the maxillary and mandibular anteriors when the jaws are closed.
*can be caused by thumb sucking or mouth breathing.

open bite

why are ortho separators placed?

to open contacts to provide space for bands

the hawes retainer is made up of how many pieces?

2 pieces

hawes retainer can be fixed and removable: true or false?


different names for hawes retainer?

jackscrew, palata expander

removal of bands is most easily accomplished with?

band removing pliers

it is necessary to remove bands after they have been?

-trial fitted
-when loose band is located during tx
-when tx is completed

how are bands removed?

with band removing pliers
soft side of the pliers is placed on occlusal surface of the tooth other side should catch the cervical edge of the band
pliers are squeezed together and band is lifted free from the tooth.

how are bands chosen?

measuring the mesio distal width of the tooth and choose a band the same size, place on tooth or pts study model. if band is right size continue to the next tooth

elastic ortho separators can cause the teeth to?

-be sore
-cause the accumulation of food dbris around the teeth

archwire is held in place by inserting it in the?

buccal tube

RDA may NOT bond brackets unless?

they hold a OAP license

prepare teeth bonding: RDA or DA?


what will the bonding agent do when placing brackets?

bonding agent will lock onto the tooth and then the composite will stick to the bonding agent

most common types of ligatures used today?

elastic ligatures

what happens when the arch is widening?

the crossbite is corrected

archwire protruding distal to the buccal tube should be?

cut with end cutting pliers and bent gingivaly

what are the two types of ligation used in orthodontics?

wire ligation and elastic ligation

ultrasonic scaler are limited to use around orthodontic appliances & may not be used for excess cement removal around crown & bridge or after removal of bonded appliances. true or false?


apply extra oral forces to the teeth so movement occurs more rapidly

headgears in orthodontics

after orthodontic bands have been removed to retain or maintain the position of the teeth until new bone is completely formed around the teeth and the occlusion is stabiized

when retainers are used and their purpose


class III

what should you not do when twisting wire ligatures?

twist they too tight as they might break

phosphoric acid solution


what forms of bonding agent are available?

light cured, self timed

where is composite placed when placing bonded brackets?

on the back of each bracket

for how long do you cure etch on a tooth when placing bonded brackets?

20 -30 secs

materials for seating of adjusted headgears & retainers?

mouth mirror and hand mirror

what motion do you use when placing elastic separators?

seesaw motion

what do separators do when they come in contact with saliva?

they expand and push teeth apart

the mesio cusp of the maxillary 1st molar distal to the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar a protrusive jaw the mesio cusp of the maxillary 1st molar distal to the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st molar a protrusive jaw

mesiocclusion class III

most common type of separators used today?


overbite procedure is measured vertical or horizontal?


while twisting wire ligatures you should?

hold wire smooth while twisting and make sure neither the pliers or the wire impinges on soft tissue

1) seat archwire into buccal tube and center at median line.
2) push archwire into brackets gently making sure wire is completely seated into the brackets before ligation
3) loop wire ligature over bracket and archwire fully engaging the wire around the bracket before ligating
4) cross wire and cath in points of ligating plier
5) wrap ligature on stabilizing knob of plier
6) twist ligature clockwise
7) remove plier cut twists to about 3mm and tuck under the bracket corner

placing brass wire ligatures

steps for removal of elastic ligature?

1) using scaler hook the scaler under the loop of the elastic and lift off from each corner of the bracket to free the archwire
2) continue around, removing each elastic ligature until the archwire is completely

when taking off elastic ligatures care should be taken to?

-stabilize scaler so as to prevent slippage and injury to soft tissues
-to see that all pieces

1) have pt bring teeth into centric occlusion. mark the lower incisors to show how far the maxillary teeth overlap or overbite the mandibular anteriors
2) have pt open mouth and measure the distance from the mark to the incisal edge of lower anteriors.

overbite procedure

placement of brass wire and TP Spring separators

RDA but can be removed by DA or RDA

Why are teeth coronal polished when placing bonded brackets?

to remove stains, plaque, pellicle

what shouold the RDA do if the archwire wont seat properly?

-check end of wire for roughness
-check for debris in the buccal tube or brackets
-observe the torque (twist) of the archwire (it may be bending the buccal tube)
--consult with the dentist if the problem persists

what will the etchant do to the tooth when placing brackets?

will create microscopic spaces between the enamel rods

loose band or bracket can cause?

-cavities (caries)
-brown or black discoloration which can permanetly mark the teeth
-unpleasant odors and tastes
-plaque and materia alba build- up

used to apply extra oral forces to the teeth to either move teeth distally or to keep them from moving mesially

headgear facebow

lower anteriors close too far in severe cases the lower incisors bite into the palate

closed bite

type of cement used to cement bands?

-zinc phosphate
-zinc oxy-phosphate
-poly carboxylate
-glass ionimer

extend from the mandibular anteriors to the maxillary posteriors

Class III Elastics

area where the 3 pieces of bone that make up the palate are joined together?

maxillary suture

why is the pt told to adjust the hawes retainer each day?

this will cause the gradual separation of the maxillary boney suture by widening the arch the crossbite is corrected

elastic ortho separators can cause problems if they?

-slip subgingivally
-interfere with normal occlusion
-cause too uch separation
-remain on the teeth after the bands have been placed

with teeth in centric position use a mili ruler to measure horizontal space between upper and lower anteriors

overbite and overjet procedure measurement

use: boley gauge
measure the mesiodistal width of each tooth at the contact points
record tooth measurements & the total of all the tooth widths in the arch

tooth size

what instrument do you use to remove bands?

band removing pliers

how do you select a band?

measuring mesio distal width if the tooth & choose band of the same size

extend from the maxillary anteriors to the mandibular posteriors

class II elastics

bonding procedures may not currently be performed by DA or RDA: true or false?


when removing elastic separators you move them.....?

occlusally away from the gingival tissue to prevent injury to the tissue

elastic separators may cause teeth to become?

-accumulation of food debris around the tooth

1) place an elastic separator on the tip of the separator forcpts and stretch the elastic through the contact point of the tooth with a seesaw motion.
2) place one loop beneath the contact point and the other above and into the embrasure
3) indicate on pts chart how many separators where placed

placement of elastic separators

ultrasonic scaler are limited to use around orthodontic appliances & may NOT be used for excess cement removal around crown & bridge or after removal of bonded appliances. true or false?


during brass wire separation period what can be done and what shouldnt be interfered?

wire should not interfere with occlusion, gingival tissue, chewing and speech. brass wire separators can be tightened periodically.


anterior teeth

covered with or full of wart like growths


separate not running together or blending


what are the ways to prevent a mouth mirror from fogging?

place it under warm water
-commercial defogger
-rub it along the buccal mucosa

pwhat parts of the mouth does an oral cavity inspection procedure consist of?

-floor of mouth
-record vital sigsn and health history


located on top of contact point acts as a natural spillway for food

interdental papilla:

located under contact point
-v shaped between teeth

anug is caused by?

-poor nutrition
-poor oral hygiene

normal depth for sulcus is?


what is a periodontal pocket?

diseased sulcus


hardest structure in the human body
-formed by ameloblasts
does not degenerate itself


located below the enamel
-makes up th ebulk of the tooth
-can be replaced and regenerated with odontoblasts


covers root portion of the tooth
-formed by cells called cementoblasts


-caries the nerve of the tooth
-contains blood and lymph supply for the tooth

methods for inspection of the oral cavity?


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