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AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CHAPTER 3
Ecosystems and Energy
Terms in this set (40)
Who developed the concept of ecology?
Ecology was developed by Ernst Haeckel
What does ecology examine?
The systems that include interactions among organisms and between organisms and their abiotic environment
What is a biotic environment?
An environment that includes all living organisms
What is an abiotic environment?
An environment that includes living space, temperature, sunlight, soil, wind, and precipitation
What is a species?
A group of similar organisms whose members freely interbreed with one another in the wild to produce fertile offspring
What is a population?
A group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area at the same time
What is a community?
A natural association that consists of all populations of different species that live and interact within an area at the same time
What is an ecosystem?
An ecosystem is a system in which all of the biological, physical, and chemical components of an area form a complex, interacting network of energy flow and materials cycling
What is a landscape?
A region that includes several interacting ecosystems
What is the biosphere?
The parts of Earth's atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and soil that contain all living organisms
What is the atmosphere?
The gaseous envelope surrounding the earth
What is the hydrosphere?
The Earth's supply of water
What is the lithosphere?
The soil and rock of the Earth's crust
What is energy?
The capacity or ability to do work
In what forms does energy exist?
Chemical radiant, thermal, mechanical, nuclear, and electrical
In what two ways can energy exist?
Potential (stored energy), and kinetic (energy of motion)
What is thermodynamics?
The study of energy and its transformations
What is a closed system?
An isolated system, it does not exchange energy with its surroundings
What is an open system?
A system that exchanges energy with its surroundings
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, although it can change from one form to another
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
When energy is converted from one form to another, some of it is degraded into heat, a less usable form that disperses into the environment
What is entropy?
A measure of the disorderliness or randomness
What is photosynthesis?
The biological process in which light energy from the sun is captured and transformed into the chemical energy of glucose molecules. 6CO2+12H20+radiant energy=glucose
What is cellular respiration?
The chemical energy that plants store in carbohydrates and other molecules is released within cells of plants, animals, or other organisms
What is chemosynthesis?
The process by which energy produced from inorganic raw materials such as enzymes, hydrogen sulfide and oxygen; water and sulfur/sulfate are additional byproducts
What is energy flow?
The passage of energy in a one-way direction through an ecosystem
What is another word for a producer?
What is another word for a consumer?
What is a detritivore?
Consumers that consume organic matter that includes animal carcasses, leaf litter, and feces
What is another word for a decomposer?
Where does energy flow occur in an ecosystem?
In food chains
What is an ecological pyramid?
A representation of the relative energy values of each trophic level
What is a pyramid of numbers?
It shows the number of organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem
What is a pyramid of biomass?
A representation of the total biomass at each trophic level
What is biomass?
A quantitative estimate of the total mass of living material, and indicates the amount of fixed energy at a particular time
What is a pyramid of energy?
A representation of the energy content of the biomass at each trophic level
What is the gross primary productivity (GPP)?
The rate at which energy is captured during photosynthesis in an ecosystem
What is the net primary productivity (NPP)
The energy in plant tissues after cellular respiration has occured
What percent do humans represent as the biomass of consumers on the earth?
What percent of the annual NPP of land-based ecosystems do humans consume?
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