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Laboratory Testing and Vital Signs
Terms in this set (13)
Newborns RBC - the numbers
Physiologic Anemia of Infancy?
Start with polycythemia: Hct 46-56%
Then after the first few days, starts to decrease...
Physiologic Anemia of Infancy - Hct can get to 30% and Hgb to 10g/dL
Gradually increase after this
Newborns RBC size
Newborns have bigger red cells (MCV >94)
Falls to a nadir of 70-84 at ~ 6 mo
Increases gradually to adult values after puberty (adult values up to 96)
Born with more WBC
Neutrophils the most at birth
Lymphocytes predominate 1 mo - 6years
Almost all hormone values vary with age, sex, and Tanner stage... what s the one hormone that is the exception to this?
Cortisol (varies by time of day)
Three unique considerations for radiation exposure in kids
Children are considerably more sensitive to radiation than adults, as demonstrated in epidemiologic studies of exposed populations
Children have a longer life expectancy than adults, resulting in a larger window of opportunity for expressing radiation damage
Children may receive a higher radiation dose than necessary if CT settings are not adjusted for their smaller body size
Normal pediatric SPo2 values have not yet been established yet but what are some general ranges
Sea level: 97-99% (-2 SDs 95-96%)
High altitudes (>3000m) mean 86-91% (-2 SD 74-82%)
Lower in morning, highest in afternoon
Asthma exacerbation O2 peds rates
Acute bronchiolitis in infants - no consensus
AAP says administer O2 if <90%
Dismiss if >94% on RA for 8 hours
What O2 stat should admit a child?
no consensus, but ≤ 92% should be treated with oxygen and admitted
O2 stats in things like pneumonia can be helpful, as infants and children often don't appear cyanotic despite severe hypoxemia
The most common heart lesion in children
VSD - ventral septal defect
Where/what do you hear with VSDs?
Small VSD with minimal left-to-right shunts are generally asymptomatic with harsh, L lower sternal border holosystolic murmur
Large VSD murmur may be LESS harsh because of lack of a significant pressure gradient across the lesion
Usually not cyanotic, but can become dusky during feedings
What would you see on CXR with VSD?
Cardiomegaly, increased pulmonary vasculature
What would see on ECG with VSD?
Medication for VSD sx
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