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Heart of Darkness centers around Marlow, an introspective sailor, and his journey up the Congo River to meet Kurtz, reputed to be an idealistic man of great abilities.

the ship marlow tells his story on is called the Nellie

narrator who is listening to marlow talk about kurtz (pov)
peripheral narrator allows for a sense of mystery



"they were conquerors, and for that you want only brute force- nothing to boast of, when you have it, since your strength is just an accident arising from the weakness of others"


makes comparison to buddha (shows us global perspective). "mind" he began again, lifting one arm from the elbow, the palm of the hand outward, so that, with his legs folded before him, he had the pose of a buddha preaching in european clothes and without a lotus-flower


"what saves us is efficency - the devotion to efficenency"

you don't know who you are until this world finds you out



Kurtz becomes worshipped by the tribal men

ending: krtz dies, marrow lies


to what degree are series lies
humans want to romantise war
these poems attempt to tell the reality with out romance

Marlow reaches the Inner Station and notices Kurtz's building through his telescope — there is no fence, but a series of posts ornamented with "balls" that Marlow later learns were natives' heads. A Russian trader and disciple of Kurtz, called "The Harlequin" by Marlow, approaches the steamboat and tells Marlow that Kurtz is still alive. Marlow learns that the hut they previously saw is the Harlequin's. The Harlequin speaks enthusiastically of Kurtz's wisdom, saying, "This man has enlarged my mind."

Marlow learns from him that the steamboat was attacked because the natives did not want Kurtz to be taken away. Suddenly, Marlow sees a group of native men coming toward him, carrying Kurtz on a stretcher; Kurtz is taken inside a hut, where Marlow approaches him and gives him some letters. Marlow notices that Kurtz is frail, sick, and bald. After leaving the hut, Marlow sees a "wild and gorgeous" native woman approach the steamer; the Harlequin hints to Marlow that the woman is Kurtz's Mistress. Marlow then hears Kurtz chiding the Manager from behind a curtain: "Save me! — save the ivory, you mean." The Harlequin, fearing what might happen when Kurtz is taken on board the steamboat, asks Marlow for some tobacco and rifle cartridges; he then leaves in a canoe.

At midnight that same night, Marlow awakens to the sound of a big drum. He inspects Kurtz's cabin, only to discover that he is not there. Marlow runs outside and finds a trail running through the grass — and realizes that Kurtz is escaping by crawling away on all fours. When he comes upon Kurtz, Kurtz warns him to run, but Marlow helped Kurtz to his feet and carried him back to the cabin.

The next day, Marlow, his crew, and Kurtz leave the Inner Station. As they move farther away from the Inner Station, Kurtz's health deteriorates; at one point, the steamboat breaks down and Kurtz gives Marlow a packet of letters and a photograph for safe-keeping, fearing that the Manager will take them. Marlow complies.

One night after the breakdown, Marlow approaches Kurtz, who is lying in the pilothouse on his stretcher "waiting for death." After trying to reassure Kurtz that he is not going to die, Marlow hears Kurtz whisper his final words: "The horror! The horror!" The next day, Kurtz is buried offshore in a muddy hole.

After returning to Europe, Marlow again visits Brussels and finds himself unable to relate to the sheltered Europeans around him. A Company official approaches Marlow and asks for the packet of papers to which Kurtz had entrusted him. Marlow refuses, but he does give the official a copy of Kurtz's report to The Society for the Suppression of Savage Customs with Kurtz's chilling postscript ("Exterminate all the brutes!") torn off. He learns that Kurtz's mother had died after being nursed by Kurtz's "Intended," or fiancée.

Marlow's final duty to Kurtz is to visit his Intended and deliver Kurtz's letters (and her portrait) to her. When he meets her, at her house, she is dressed in mourning and still greatly upset by Kurtz's death. Marlow lets slip that he was with Kurtz when he died, and the Intended asks him to repeat Kurtz's last words Marlow lies to her and says, "The last word he pronounced was — your name." The Intended states that she "knew" Kurtz would have said such a thing, and Marlow leaves, disgusted by his lie yet unable to prevent himself from telling it.

The anonymous narrator on board the Nellie then resumes his narrative. The Director of Companies makes an innocuous remark about the tide, and the narrator looks out at the overcast sky and the Thames — which seems to him to lead "into the heart of an immense darkness."
First World War and was killed in action during the Battle of Arras in 1917, soon after he arrived in France.

weddings= beautiful cherry trees= beuatiful
Weddings are supposed to be romantic in may

ironic because 908,000 people are dead

The Cherry Trees: In this poem Thomas describes the cherry trees shedding their blossom. In England the flowers tend to bloom for three or four weeks after they flower in April, so once again, this a poem set during a late English spring, here in May— the associations of life and home here providing a strong contrast to the war abroad.

"The Cherry Trees bend over and are shedding...": The trees, as throughout the poem, are given human qualities; they "bend over" here, like old men or women, or perhaps exhausted soldiers. The 'shedding' of cherry blossom occurs just weeks after blooming; if they are a symbol of abundant and beautiful life, they are also a sign that life is fleeting.

"On the old road where all that passed are dead,": the 'old road' again has symbolic weight. As in 'In Memorium (Easter 1916)', Thomas is using traditional poetic symbols here for the journey of life; the notion of "passing", so familiar to us now that it is a euphemistic cliché, derives from this symbolism. Thomas is quite literal, however: the soldiers who marched past on this road are indeed dead.

"Their petals, strewing the grass as for a wedding": The blossom appears like confetti on the grass, as if scattered by human hands ("strewing"). This is a striking and powerful simile ("as"), mixing together images of life and love (flowers, a wedding), and death (the blossoms fall because flowering has ended).

"This early May morn where there is none to wed.": The final line is devastating. The "early May morn" in the quiet English countryside becomes a reminder of the thousands of deaths occurring abroad, leaving "none to wed".
This poem reflects the war effects and consequences that the war was. This poem is very strong emotionally because it explains the disasters that war provokes above all in soldiers.


The men have changed because of war
" the bishop tells us , when the boys come back they will not be the same"
Bishop= figurehead of god .... the men are fighting of god and they are honorable for it.

They: 'They' are the idealised British soldiers of whom the bishop speaks. 'They' are quite unlike the real soldiers who go to war.

"The Bishop tells us:": The figure of religious authority in the poem— a Bishop of the Church of England— speaks with confidence about a situation of which he has no knowledge. He represents a brand of religious cant and hypocrisy that was deeply unpopular amongst many men at the front.

"When the boys come back / They will not be the same;": The meaning of the poem turns on this observation— that the war changes the men who fought in it. Note the easy familiarity, even patronizing tone of the reference to 'the boys', and the use of alliteration in this first line, as throughout the poem.

"for they'll have fought / In a just cause;": alliteration ('f') is again used to give a rhythmic force to the Bishop's leading statements. The mention of a "just cause" reinforces the sense that the Bishop is dealing in popular platitudes about the justification for war— that it is "just", or 'right'.

"their comrades blood has bought...": the soldiers are explicitly compared to Christ, who 'bought' man eternal life by dying for their sins. Sassoon's earlier poem 'The Redeemer' explicitly made this contrast: interestingly, Sassoon now seems to refute this sentimental analogy.

"New right to breed an honourable race,": what follows from this Christ-like redemption is more unpleasant however. The Bishop uses pseudo-scientific language, popular around the turn of the century. In Social Darwinist terms, the 'right to breed' is claimed through the sacrifice of soldiers. This 'survival of the fittest' (here, the fittest are the most "honourable") is an idea that underlay much elitist thinking about society and often had, as here, a racist dimension. Compare and contrast this line with those found in Rupert Brooke's 'Peace' and 'The Dead'.

"they have challenged Death and dared him face to face": the Bishop's heroic and clichéd rhetoric unwittingly recalls the line in Corinthians 13:12, that declares "now we see through a glass, darkly; but then, face to face". This Biblical line declares that before death we have necessarily imperfect knowledge, only attaining real enlightenment when we meet God. In many ways, the Bishop embodies this cosmic ignorance.

"'We're none of us the same!' the boys reply": The anguished agreement echoes— along with the use of the phrase "the boys" - the first line, only to subvert the Bishop's prediction.

"For George lost both his legs...": A grim litany of injuries follows, spelling out the true consequences of war for "the boys". Note that the soldiers are named, rather than idealized and anonymous in the Bishop's sermon. The description is explicit and pitiful: "Poor Jim's shot through the lungs and like to die".

"'And Bert's gone syphilitic:": Bert has contracted syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease. Soldiers on leave would commonly visit prostitutes in the local towns and villages; brothels were even graded in some areas for use by officers (signed by blue lamps) and privates (red lamps). Venereal infection was endemic, as prostitutes could sleep with over a hundred men a day. Note the deeply ironic contrast, then, between this and the Bishop's claim that "their comrades blood has bought / New right to breed an honourable race".

"...that hasn't found some change.": the irony of this statement illustrates Sassoon's satirical point, that a massive change has indeed come to the men, but quite different to that which the Bishop predicts.

"And the Bishop said; 'the ways of God are strange!": The Bishop resorts to idiotic cliché to explain the real change witnessed, essentially pronouncing that 'God works in mysterious ways'.

he bishop merely uses the word 'boys' in a patronising way. These are young men returning from war disproving the popular platitudes that the war is a 'just cause'. The bishop says the boys will have changed for the better because of the honourable cause but instead they have been damaged physically and emotionally. One of the boys even has syphillis which implies the common visits to prostitutes by soldiers which contradicts the sacred, christ-like imagery the bishop proposes.
ironic: what role did women play?
romanizing men

women used to "encourage" the men to go off to war
wounded in a mentionable place shell-shock"


This poem is a very sarcastic poem. It marks the beginning of anti-women literature. Men resented the fact that they had to fight in the war, while the women could stay home and pretend that everything was the same as it always had been. Men and women could not relate to one another as they had before.

You love us when we're heroes, home on leave,
Women only love soldiers that are decorated heroes. When the men are home the women fawn over their heroic deeds, but when the men are away in battle women could not care less.

Or wounded in a mentionable place.
"Wounded in a mentionable place" can have a couple of meanings. It is common to think that a woman would only want to be with a man that is not disabled in any way. Losing an arm or leg would not be a desirable injury, because they would not be considered real men any more. Soldiers are glorified as heroes and heroes are not crippled. A wound in an unmentionable place could be the mind. Many soldiers experienced psychological issues as a result of everything that they seen in battle. Sassoon had a really hard time when his friend died in battle; he was even sent to a mental hospital under the guise of having shell shock. Many soldiers had a hard time rationalizing all the killing and dying of men who probably did not really deserve to die since they were just fighting to uphold the honor of their countries.


You worship decorations' you believe
That chivalry redeems the war's disgrace.
At home, life went on like there was no war going on. When soldiers would come home on the weekends they could not understand how life seemed so unaffected. They were out in the trenches everyday killing and dying. When they came home they were expected to act like the chivalrous gentlemen that they were before the war, but they had a hard time being that man because they had seen too much evil. Societal doctrine did not exist out in the trenches.

You make us shells. You listen with delight,
"You make us shells"-in WWI, many women were recruited to munitions factories; this is a job that had only been held by men previously. Working in the factories gave women a new sense of independence and after the war they wanted to continue working. They provided the equipment of death.

By takes of dirt and danger fondly thrilled.
The women loved to listen to their stories of battle; to them they were like scary made-up stories meant for entertainment, but for the soldiers it was their reality. The women did not seem to understand the reality of the war.


You crown our distant ardours while we fight,

Ardour is defined as enthusiasm or passion.

And mourn our laurelled memories when we're killed.
"You mourn our laurelled"-in ancient Rome and Greece, a victorious general was crowned with a laurel wreath.


You can't believe that British troops 'retire'
When hell's last horror breaks them, and they run,

Trampling the terrible corpses-blind with blood.
These lines are pointing out the naivety of women. Women wanted their men out there fighting and being heroic without considering what this actually did to them. They did not understand what it was like to be on the front line and they would act like it was not a big deal to kill. Women are trying to be nationalists, but they have no idea what nationalism really means.





O German mother dreaming by the fire,
While you are knitting socks to send your son

His face is trodden deeper in the "mud".

While women are concerning themselves with the frivolities of life, men are out there dying in the mud. Their bodies no longer discernible; they become just another dead body on a large field of dead bodies, while women get to sit at home knitting.
Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori is a line from the Roman lyrical poet Horace's Odes (III.2.13). The line can be translated as: "It is sweet and glorious to die for one's country."

compares soliders to bergers and hags (harsh reality)


It's just another day on the battlefields of World War I . As our speaker lets us know right away, however, "normal" isn't a word that has any meaning for the soldiers anymore. They're all mentally and physically ravaged by the exertions of battle.

And then it gets worse. Just as the men are heading home for the night, gas shells drop beside them. The soldiers scramble for their gas masks in a frantic attempt to save their own lives. Unfortunately, they don't all get to their masks in time. Our speaker watches as a member of his crew chokes and staggers in the toxic fumes, unable to save him from an excruciating certain death.

"gas! Gas!' quick boys"

Now fast-forward. It's some time after the battle, but our speaker just can't get the sight of his dying comrade out of his head. The soldier's image is everywhere: in the speaker's thoughts, in his dreams, in his poetry. Worst of all, our speaker can't do anything to help the dying soldier.

"in al my dreams, before my helpless sight, he plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowing" the war is carried upstairs

Bitterly, the speaker finally addresses the people at home who rally around the youth of England, and urge them to fight for personal glory and national honor. He wonders how they can continue to call for war. If they could only witness the physical agony war creates - or even experience the emotional trauma that the speaker's going through now - the speaker thinks they might change their views. In the speaker's mind, there's noting glorious or honorable about death. Or, for that matter, war itself.

It is sweet and glorious to die for one's country."

to die isn't glorious it is harsh


ancient ways we speak about war (heroic only good things)
modern ways we speak about war (graphic ways, reality)
Innisfree- peaceful beautiful orderly, pastoral/nature, calm

"i will arise and go now, and go to innisfree"

in his hearts core

Opposite- While he stands in the city, "on the roadway, or on the pavements grey"

the platonic idea of eternal beauty

The poet declares that he will arise and go to Innisfree, where he will build a small cabin "of clay and wattles made." There, he will have nine bean-rows and a beehive, and live alone in the glade loud with the sound of bees ("the bee-loud glade"). He says that he will have peace there, for peace drops from "the veils of morning to where the cricket sings." Midnight there is a glimmer, and noon is a purple glow, and evening is full of linnet's wings. He declares again that he will arise and go, for always, night and day, he hears the lake water lapping "with low sounds by the shore." While he stands in the city, "on the roadway, or on the pavements grey," he hears the sound within himself, "in the deep heart's core."


The tranquil, hypnotic hexameters recreate the rhythmic pulse of the tide. The simple imagery of the quiet life the speaker longs to lead, as he enumerates each of its qualities, lulls the reader into his idyllic fantasy, until the penultimate line jolts the speaker—and the reader—back into the reality of his drab urban existence: "While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements grey." The final line—"I hear it in the deep heart's core"—is a crucial statement for Yeats, not only in this poem but also in his career as a whole. The implication that the truths of the "deep heart's core" are essential to life is one that would preoccupy Yeats for the rest of his career as a poet; the struggle to remain true to the deep heart's core may be thought of as Yeats's primary undertaking as a poet.
sonet and one of the greatest during the 20th century

Structure: actions precede human questions
stanzas 1 and 3 are actions and stanzas 2 and 4 are questions

Swoosh. Boom. A big white bird clocks a young girl and knocks her off balance. The swan beats its wings ferociously as it lands on top of her. He caresses her thighs with his webbed feat and holds the back of her neck in his bill. She can't escape as the swan presses down with his chest on her own.

"he holds her helpless breast upon his breast"

The bird opens the girl's thighs, and her hands are too frightened and confused to resist. The fast-moving bird on top of her looks like a blur of white feathers, and she can feel his heart beating.

The swan completes the act, and Leda becomes pregnant. She will give birth to Helen of Troy, the woman over whom the Trojan War will be fought. In Ancient Greek mythology - and in Yeast's poem - Leda's rape is taken as an indirect a cause of war.
"the broken wall" wall being priced and innocence being taken

The speaker wonders if Leda acquired any of Zeus's knowledge as the swan overpowered her. Did she know she was having sex with a god? "so masters by the brute blood of the air"

She didn't have too long to think about it, because as soon as the swan had gotten what he wanted, he let her fall to the ground as if he couldn't care less. "before the indifferent"




zeus is in the form of a swan and rapes leda

leda is helpless and has no control over the situation




Fate? free will do we actually have it

how much of life do you have control over? one moment of insemination alters the whole course of civilization
parallells= jesus changes the whole course of civilization
gyre- funnels that interlocked one another
human history 2000 year cycles
1st 2000=pagan (rson holding religious beliefs other than those of the main world religions)
2nd 2000= Christianity




opening: * falcon (humanity) going so far, cannot hear falconer (god)



the best people no conviticion

the worst people- get passionate intensity bad way

innocence is being drowned

The speaker describes a nightmarish scene: the falcon, turning in a widening "gyre" (spiral), cannot hear the falconer; "Things fall apart; the center cannot hold"; anarchy is loosed upon the world; "The blood-dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere / The ceremony of innocence is drowned." The best people, the speaker says, lack all conviction, but the worst "are full of passionate intensity."


Surely, the speaker asserts, the world is near a revelation; "Surely the Second Coming is at hand." No sooner does he think of "the Second Coming," then he is troubled by "a vast image of the Spiritus Mundi, or the collective spirit of mankind: somewhere in the desert, a giant sphinx ("A shape with lion body and the head of a man, / A gaze as blank and pitiless as the sun") is moving, while the shadows of desert birds reel about it. The darkness drops again over the speaker's sight, but he knows that the sphinx's twenty centuries of "stony sleep" have been made a nightmare by the motions of "a rocking cradle." And what "rough beast," he wonders, "its hour come round at last, / Slouches towards Bethlehem to be born?"

But as poetry, and understood more broadly than as a simple reiteration of the mystic theory of A Vision, "The Second Coming" is a magnificent statement about the contrary forces at work in history, and about the conflict between the modern world and the ancient world.


Structurally, the poem is quite simple—the first stanza describes the conditions present in the world (things falling apart, anarchy, etc.), and the second surmises from those conditions that a monstrous Second Coming is about to take place, not of the Jesus we first knew, but of a new messiah, a "rough beast," the slouching sphinx rousing itself in the desert and lumbering toward Bethlehem. This brief exposition, though intriguingly blasphemous, is not terribly complicated; but the question of what it should signify to a reader is another story entirely.

Yeats spent years crafting an elaborate, mystical theory of the universe that he described in his book A Vision. This theory issued in part from Yeats's lifelong fascination with the occult and mystical, and in part from the sense of responsibility Yeats felt to order his experience within a structured belief system. The system is extremely complicated and not of any lasting importance—except for the effect that it had on his poetry, which is of extraordinary lasting importance. The theory of history Yeats articulated in A Vision centers on a diagram made of two conical spirals, one inside the other, so that the widest part of one of the spirals rings around the narrowest part of the other spiral, and vice versa. Yeats believed that this image (he called the spirals "gyres") captured the contrary motions inherent within the historical process, and he divided each gyre into specific regions that represented particular kinds of historical periods (and could also represent the psychological phases of an individual's development).

"The Second Coming" was intended by Yeats to describe the current historical moment (the poem appeared in 1921) in terms of these gyres. Yeats believed that the world was on the threshold of an apocalyptic revelation, as history reached the end of the outer gyre (to speak roughly) and began moving along the inner gyre.
The poem begins with the image of a falcon flying out of earshot from its human master. In medieval times, people would use falcons or hawks to track down animals at ground level. In this image, however, the falcon has gotten itself lost by flying too far away, which we can read as a reference to the collapse of traditional social arrangements in Europe at the time Yeats was writing.

In the fourth line, the poem abruptly shifts into a description of "anarchy" and an orgy of violence in which "the ceremony of innocence is drowned." The speaker laments that only bad people seem to have any enthusiasm nowadays. evil on the loose opposition to human advancement

"are full of passionate intensity" innocence being drowned heard + slaughter of the 1st human males

At line 9, the second stanza of the poem begins by setting up a new vision. The speaker takes the violence which has engulfed society as a sign that "the Second Coming is at hand." He imagines a sphinx in the desert, and we are meant to think that this mythical animal, rather than Christ, is what is coming to fulfill the prophecy from the Biblical Book of Revelation. At line 18, the vision ends as "darkness drops again," but the speaker remains troubled.

Finally, at the end of the poem, the speaker asks a rhetorical question which really amounts to a prophecy that the beast is on its way to Bethlehem, the birthplace of Christ, to be born into the world.

"slouches towards bethlehem to be born"



Yeats.
1st stanza is image of chaos
gyre (spiral with falconer and falcon)
Things falling apart, second coming in Bible
Book of revelation, end of time, judgment day
Refer to sphinx and Egypt 2,000 year early and future time
and new-coming
Gaze blank and pitiless
Egyptian gods and pharos
vexed to nightmare if you believed in Gods
What rough beast, come around at last



In other words, the world's trajectory along the gyre of science, democracy, and heterogeneity is now coming apart, like the frantically widening flight-path of the falcon that has lost contact with the falconer; the next age will take its character not from the gyre of science, democracy, and speed, but from the contrary inner gyre—which, presumably, opposes mysticism, primal power, and slowness to the science and democracy of the outer gyre. The "rough beast" slouching toward Bethlehem is the symbol of this new age; the speaker's vision of the rising sphinx is his vision of the character of the new world.


This seems quite silly as philosophy or prophecy (particularly in light of the fact that it has not come true as yet). But as poetry, and understood more broadly than as a simple reiteration of the mystic theory of A Vision, "The Second Coming" is a magnificent statement about the contrary forces at work in history, and about the conflict between the modern world and the ancient world. The poem may not have the thematic relevance of Yeats's best work, and may not be a poem with which many people can personally identify; but the aesthetic experience of its passionate language is powerful enough to ensure its value and its importance in Yeats's work as a whole.
song of nature= sex


referring ancient greece, present day turkey

pinnacle of civilization ( merge between art and religion) humans at there greatest

country in 1st tim the human body. young people loving one another
young people, bodies reproducing, old, don't do that
"that is no country for old men, the young



"holy city of Byzantium"

break down of the body. body areas down but the desire has not left him. bodys ages, soul begins to focus on something else

desire can never be consumed, because he can't consumate

soul has texted in the poem


We're movin' on up. (If you've got the theme song from The Jeffersons in your head here, you're in the right place.) Want to know why? Well, as our speaker says, the country we were in before pretty much sucked.

It's a nice enough place to be if you're young and pretty and perfect, but once you start to show a few wrinkles or some grey hairs, things get ugly fast. In other words, it was a pretty brutal place to be. After all, who can be young and pretty and perfect all the time? Our speaker decides that the old country is for the birds. Literally. It's obsessed with the latest trends. Whatever's newest and prettiest gets all the attention. There's no interest in things that might endure for generations. It's sort of like a really bad episode of Trading Spaces, when a crummy designer pours bright orange paint all over a bookcase that had been in the family for generations. Sure, it looks pretty for a second...but orange goes out of style pretty quickly. Then it's just plain ugly.

Luckily, our speaker's a resourceful guy. He's so ready to get the heck outta Dodge that Byzantium (a country nearby) starts to sound pretty appealing. It sounds so appealing, in fact, that he sails there.

Byzantium is a holy city, which works out well for our speaker. In fact, he's expecting a revelation. Primarily, he's hoping that the wise folk in Byzantium will consume his soul.

Once in Byzantium, our speaker starts thinking about death. Hmm....pleasant, right? Well, yes, actually. In Byzantium, death becomes something that can be thought about realistically (which is a big improvement over our speaker's old home). In fact, once he starts reflecting about death, he actually begins to figure out ways to commemorate life.

According to the speaker, the best way to commemorate life is art. (You had to know that one was coming. After all, this is a poem.) He finally decides that art becomes a way to lodge the soul in a new "bodily form." He's not expecting the pictures on the walls to start talking or anything. That only happens in the Harry Potter books. Art can, however, bear witness to the past. That's pretty cool. At least, it's good enough for our speaker.

"Sailing to Byzantium" is one of Yeats's most inspired works, and one of the greatest poems of the twentieth century. Written in 1926 and included in Yeats's greatest single collection, 1928's The Tower, "Sailing to Byzantium" is Yeats's definitive statement about the agony of old age and the imaginative and spiritual work required to remain a vital individual even when the heart is "fastened to a dying animal" (the body). Yeats's solution is to leave the country of the young and travel to Byzantium, where the sages in the city's famous gold mosaics (completed mainly during the sixth and seventh centuries) could become the "singing-masters" of his soul. He hopes the sages will appear in fire and take him away from his body into an existence outside time, where, like a great work of art, he could exist in "the artifice of eternity." In the astonishing final stanza of the poem, he declares that once he is out of his body he will never again appear in the form of a natural thing; rather, he will become a golden bird, sitting on a golden tree, singing of the past ("what is past"), the present (that whic
irish
Ireland was his subject matter, but he went to live on in europe
Never wanted to return to ireland (backwards in joyces opinion, no new ideas because of catholic church) lived in exile
ireland had a weird relationship to europe and didn't want new ideas

dubliners- characters have connection to irish

the modern condition led to paralysis- not being able to change

joyce uses epiphany he probes psychological relizations- inner awakening, inner insights
sudden realization occurs internally with characters
epiphany is a christan holiday 12 days after birth of christ( 3 wise men being guided to betheleheham

catholic mythology


Mainly, Joyce worked and played in Dubliners at plotting and characterization, description and dialogue, and (especially) point of view (the technical term for who is telling a story, to whom, and with what limitations). What is amazing is that such a relatively immature work succeeds almost without exception. And just as Picasso's realist works have not only lasted but are actually preferred by many museum goers to his more difficult-to-appreciate later paintings, Dubliners is the favorite James Joyce book of many readers.


ne of the key characteristics of Modernism is a kooky sense of narration. See, unlike in fiction written in previous dusty centuries, Joyce uses multiple narrative points of view within the single collection, switching from the first person in the first three stories to the third person omniscient limited point of view later. And that third person limited omniscient point of view can jump from one character to another in the course of a single story, which allows Joyce to explore the feelings of two different characters in a story without giving up the realism that a fully omniscient narrator just can't bring out.
read symbolically

"being blind" blind street
Christian education was blind and oppressive place (boys being set free)
narrator has crush on his neighbors sister
tension bit romance, love, innocence, spiritual, pure,

first person


The nameless narrator of the story talks about life on North Richmond Street. The former tenant of their apartment was a priest who died. Some books have been left behind, and the young boy narrator sometimes looks at them. He is raised by his aunt and uncle. One of his playmates is a boy named Mangan, and the narrator develops a crush on his friend Mangan's sister. Mangan and his sister live in a building across the street. The narrator watches her stealthily, waiting for her to leave in the mornings so that he can follow her on part of his way to school.

One day, the girl finally speaks to him, to ask if he will go to Araby. Araby is the name of an upcoming bazaar with an Arabian theme. She can't go, because she is going on a religious retreat that weekend. The narrator, full of romantic notions, says that he will go and find some kind of gift for her.

wants to take her to bazaar

manga sister can not go because she going to a church retreat. but the narrator says he will bring her something romanizing if she goes

One fine day, she finally speaks to him. She can't go to "Araby," a "splendid" bazaar, (it's a fancy name for a market), but she says he should go. Hint hint. (Araby.7).
Don't worry, he catches her drift: "I'll totally buy you a present from Araby!"
Which is great, except that now he has to wait for this trip to Araby to actually, you know, happen. He obsesses, can't concentrate on his schoolwork, and keeps reminding his uncle that he wants to go.
It's the big day, and it starts off badly. His uncle stands in the way of his usual morning stalker ritual, and he gets a bad feeling about the whole plan: "Already my heart misgave me," he tells us (Araby.15).
And it gets worse. His stupid uncle forgets that it's the big day, and when he gets home late from work and takes too long to hang up his coat, the narrator "could interpret these signs." He went to the bars and had a little too much to drink. Ugh. Not good.
The train to Araby is still running, so he heads out with a little bit of money, but by the time he gets there almost everything is closed. So not good.
A bratty cashier at one of the open stalls keeps an eye on him as he tries to find something he can bring back for his girl. But she's not any help, and only wants to talk to the men at the bazaar.
The lights go out and the party's over, and he hasn't bought anything. "gallery that light was out"
He's angry and ashamed.

emphany ends the poem: modern stories ends without resolution
"gazing up into darkness i saw myself as a Creature driven and derided by vanity: and my eyes burned with anguish and anger" (emerging sexuality)

you in love for your own vanity
sees something about him self, his emerging sexuality away he likes someone wants to use them for something. doing it for sex

ho narrates the story? james joyce as an adult looking back on his childhood.

what does he want most in life? to be loved by his friend (Mangan)'s sister

what does word araby refer to in the story a bazaar in their country; an open market many ppl go to

3 truths the boy learns in araby -he is not in love, its vain -araby is not exotic -he is not able to buy a gift for mangan's siter

what does his experience at stall of the young lady add to the story? -she

3 emotions the boy feels at end anguish, anger, shame

define epiphany a human felt, intense connection with divine or understood spiritual truth they hadn't before; moment of sudden insight

epiphany brings the boy what? the realization that he was vain by believing that he loved her

which type of irony is represented by the boys disillusionment at the bazaar? contrast btwn romance and reality

which of the boys feelings or thoughts is ironic? he thinks the package in his hands is a sacred chalice


s with "The Encounter," this story deals with longing for adventure and escape, though here this longing finds a focus in the object of the narrator's desire. The title, "Araby," also suggests escape. To the nineteenth-century European mind, the Islamic lands of North Africa, the Near East, and the Middle East symbolized decadence, exotic delights, escapism, and a luxurious sensuality. The boy's erotic desires for the girl become joined to his fantasies about the wonders that will be offered in the Orientalist bazaar. He dreams of buying her a suitably romantic gift.
the dead=the past

implied= euphony paart. not with these children
gabriel= smart, professor, entitled
he notices his wife cries at a song

Gabriel vs micheal

micheal is dead, she thinks he died for her

snow comes down gerbil goes up
dying moments; snow falling

ending: epiphany gabriel too wil die (kinder and better life)



A professor and part-time book reviewer named Gabriel Conroy attends a Christmastime party thrown by his aunts (Kate and Julia Morkin, grand dames in the world of Dublin music) at which he dances with a fellow teacher and delivers a brief speech. As the party is breaking up, Gabriel witnesses his wife, Gretta, listening to a song sung by the renowned tenor Bartell D'Arcy, and the intensity of her focus on the music causes him to feel both sentimental and lustful. In a hotel room later, Gabriel is devastated to discover that he has misunderstood Gretta's feelings; she has been moved by the memory of a young lover named Michael Furey who preceded Gabriel, and who died for the love of Gretta. Gabriel realizes that she has never felt similarly passionate about their marriage. He feels alone and profoundly mortal, but spiritually connected for the first time with others.


The story reiterates the great themes of Dubliners. Gabriel's marriage is clearly suffering from paralysis, the condition of nearly all the characters in the collection. This accounts for his excitement at story's end when he believes that Gretta's passion relates to him and them, as their marriage has decayed badly over the years. In this story, paralysis is represented as usual by the colors yellow and brown, but Joyce also employs the symbolism of snow and ice; after all, if something is frozen, it is motionless — paralyzed.

Thus, when Gabriel enters his aunts' party, "A light fringe of snow lay like a cape on the shoulders of his overcoat and like toecaps on the toes of his galoshes; and, as the buttons of his overcoat slipped with a squeaking noise through the snow-stiffened frieze, a cold fragrant air from out-of-doors escaped from crevices and folds." The symbolism returns at story's end, in the justly famous final paragraphs describing a snow-covered Ireland. Not only Gabriel but his entire homeland has been paralyzed, Joyce is saying (or, more precisely, revealing). Alternatively, at the conclusion of Dubliners, something connects Gabriel to his fellow Irishmen, a connection he had until that time disavowed.
challenges traditions
consider battlefields in France during world war 1
trenches in the south of France---- image creates wasteland

so much potential in the land but it is wasted

Irony: "april is the cruller month" spring time is pretty

education today is dummed down, but your exposed to more broader experiences

culture has been lost

myths give people order + shape
myths gives culture shape
myth lie or false

culture is completely different , holidays are around business schedules

tradition does not hold as strong as it used to
"what are the roots that clutch, what beaches grow out of this stony rubbish?

the west needs to create a new democratic world out of the pieces/fragments out of the western world.

Thomas Stearns Eliot, best known for writing "The Waste Land," which literature scholars still study and acknowledge as the poem of the twentieth century, also wrote literary criticism and cultural philosophies. In confronting the world and its past, present, and future in art and philosophy, Eliot developed an approach to history as complex and mature as any professional historian's. Like Vico and Toynbee, Eliot viewed history in terms of the development of cultures. Grounding himself in the absolute authority of Anglo-Catholic Christianity, Eliot posited religion as the source of all cultures, describing how these cultures develop through the dynamic interactions of unity and diversity, tradition and novelty, and individual perspective and cultural context. Unlike the Enlightenment historians and their heirs, he did not see progress as an escalating improvement in culture, but as the regeneration of cultural tradition. Like many thinkers of his time, Eliot believed Western culture was a fragmentary mess. He cited the decay of religion -- the source of culture -- and tradition -- the permanence of culture -- as the cause of cultural collapse. Though he believed this decay had proceeded too far to be easily reversed, he enjoined thinkers to adopt his theories and draw hope from the understanding they provided. And though Eliot was staunchly conservative in outlook and disposition, his focus on individual perspective made him one of the fathers of post-modem thought.


The Burial of the Dead
It's not the cheeriest of starts, and it gets even drearier from there. The poem's speaker talks about how spring is an awful time of year, stirring up memories of bygone days and unfulfilled desires. Then the poem shifts into specific childhood memories of a woman named Marie. This is followed by a description of tangled, dead trees and land that isn't great for growing stuff. Suddenly, you're in a room with a "clairvoyant" or spiritual medium named Madame Sosostris, who reads you your fortune. And if that weren't enough, you then watch a crowd of people "flow[ing] over London Bridge" like zombies (62). Moving right along...

A Game of Chess
You are transported to the glittery room of a lavish woman, and you notice that hanging from the wall is an image of "the change of Philomel," a woman from Greek myth who was raped by King Tereus and then changed into a nightingale. Some anxious person says that their nerves are bad, and asks you to stay the night. This is followed by a couple of fragments vaguely asking you what you know and remember. The section finishes with a scene of two women chatting and trying to sneak in a few more drinks before closing time at the bar.

The Fire Sermon
Section three opens with a speaker who's hanging out beside London's River Thames and feeling bad about the fact that there's no magic left in the world. The focus swoops back to the story of Philomel for a second, then another speaker talks about how he might have been asked for weekend of sex by a "Smyrna merchant" (209). Next, you're hearing from Tiresias, a blind prophet from myth who was turned into a woman for seven years by the goddess Hera. You hear about a scene where a modern young man and woman—both not much to look at—are having this really awful, loveless sex. Finally, you overhear someone singing a popular song, which in the context of this poem just sounds depressing.

Death By Water
In a brief scene, you watch as a dead sailor named Phlebas decays at the bottom of the ocean, and the poem tells you to think of this young man whenever you start feeling too proud. Good tip, T.S.

What the Thunder Said
Section five takes you to a stony landscape with no water. There are two people walking, and one notices in his peripheral vision that a third person is with them. When he looks over, though, this other person disappears (it's like one of those squiggly lines that dance in the corner of your eye). In a dramatic moment, thunder cracks over the scene, and its noise seems to say three words in Sanskrit: Datta, Dayadhvam, and Damyata, which command you to "Give," "Sympathize," and "Control." This is followed by a repetition of the word Shantih, which means "the peace that passeth all understanding." After all that slogging, T.S. maybe gives us a little hope with this final word. Then again, maybe not.



The poem begins with a section entitled "The Burial of the Dead." In it, the narrator -- perhaps a representation of Eliot himself -- describes the seasons. Spring brings "memory and desire," and so the narrator's memory drifts back to times in Munich, to childhood sled rides, and to a possible romance with a "hyacinth girl." The memories only go so far, however. The narrator is now surrounded by a desolate land full of "stony rubbish."

He remembers a fortune-teller named Madame Sosostris who said he was "the drowned Phoenician Sailor" and that he should "fear death by water." Next he finds himself on London Bridge, surrounded by a crowd of people. He spots a friend of his from wartime, and calls out to him.

The next section, "A Game of Chess," transports the reader abruptly from the streets of London to a gilded drawing room, in which sits a rich, jewel-bedecked lady who complains about her nerves and wonders what to do. The poem drifts again, this time to a pub at closing time in which two Cockney women gossip. Within a few stanzas, we have moved from the upper crust of society to London's low-life.


"The Fire Sermon" opens with an image of a river. The narrator sits on the banks and muses on the deplorable state of the world. As Tiresias, he sees a young "carbuncular" man hop into bed with a lonely female typist, only to aggressively make love to her and then leave without hesitation. The poem returns to the river, where maidens sing a song of lament, one of them crying over her loss of innocence to a similarly lustful man.

"Death by Water," the fourth section of the poem, describes a dead Phoenician lying in the water -- perhaps the same drowned sailor of whom Madame Sosostris spoke. "What the Thunder Said" shifts locales from the sea to rocks and mountains. The narrator cries for rain, and it finally comes. The thunder that accompanies it ushers in the three-pronged dictum sprung from the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad: "Datta, dayadhvam, damyata": to give, to sympathize, to control. With these commandments, benediction is possible, despite the collapse of civilization that is under way -- "London bridge is falling down falling down falling down.
"tradition" should positively be discouraged

objective theory- about art being art
race, gender, sexuality... doesn't mater; tradition + genius is what matters
artistic tradition while art is being created

titile is important- tradition comes first, then great talent is born

you must study greatness to be great (think about arnold)
goes against the romanticism movement

if you are a honest critic, you would only pay attention to the poem/art not the poet. "honest criticism and sensitive appreciation are directed not upon the poet but upon the poetry"

conclusion; emotion comes from the poem not the poet
"the emotion and art is impersonal"

empty your self from personality to create greatness
"and the poet cannot reach this impersonality without surrendering himself wholly to the work to be done"

linked to james joyce view of art of stepping away from personality


work is doctored by elicits (harvard, yale)


"Tradition and Individual Talent" is the essay of lasting significance in the history of modern criticism. The essay brought into being two principal aspects of Eliot's critical domain - tradition and impersonality in art and poetry, that rated over the realm of criticism. The essay also brings forth Eliot's views on the inter-relation between traditional and individual talent. The essay brought into being the new approach with poets of everlasting significance and it also provided the parameters for the assessment of the genius and the shortcomings of the masters but contributed to the history of English Literature. The idea of tradition with all its magnificence, has a meaning beyond the conventional sense of term. It begins with a historical sense and goes on acquiring new dimensions along political and cultural dimension, and this creates a system of axes for the assessment of the worth and genius of a poet.
The idea of Eliot's theory of tradition is based on the inevitable phenomenon of the continuity of the values during the process called civilization.
Dramatic monologe


the title is "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", but Prufrock's problem is finding love and talking to the women.

Alfred "prude" "Frock" coat/covers



"the sky like a patient etherisesed upon a table" sky looks like dead body h

*in the room the women come and go talking of micheal angleo
eliot is arguing art/poetry is dead except if its in frivolous conversation
sets mood of aristocratic wealth

nastisitic vs self conscious

Do i dare disturb the universe?

"measures out life with coffee spoons" ensures order
routine pins you down

ending: do i dare eat a peach?

he thinks no one can love him

mermaids are girls of temptation

fearful life does not escape death

on his way to a cock tail party

Meet Prufrock. (Hi, Prufrock!). He wants you to come take a walk with him through the winding, dirty streets of a big, foggy city that looks a lot like London. He's going to show you all the best sights, including the "one-night cheap hotels" and "sawdust restaurants." What a gentleman, he is! Also, he has a huge, life-altering question to ask you. He'll get to that later, though.

Cut to a bunch of women entering and leaving a room. The women are talking about the famous Renaissance painter Michelangelo. We don't know why they're talking about Michelangelo, and we never learn. Welcome to Prufrock's world, where no one does anything interesting.

Did we mention that it's foggy. Like really, really foggy. The fog has a delightful yellow color, and it acts a lot like a cat.

Yawn. What a day. We've accomplished so much already with Prufrock. There's still a lot of stuff he still wants to get done before "toast and tea." People to see, decisions to make, life-altering questions to ask. But not yet...There's still plenty of time for all that later.

Where did the women go? Oh, yes, they're still talking about Michelangelo.

Yup. Pleeeen-ty of time for Prufrock to do all that really important stuff. Except that he doesn't know if he should. He's kind of nervous. You see, he was about to tell someone something really important, but then he didn't. Too nervous. Oops! At least he's a sharp-looking guy. Well, his clothes are sharp-looking. The rest of him is kind of not-so-sharp-looking. People say he's bald and has thin arms.

But he still has pleeen-ty of time. And he's accomplished so much already! For example, he has drank a lot of coffee, and he's lived through a lot of mornings and afternoons. Those are pretty big accomplishments, right? Plus, he's known a lot of women. Or at least he's looked at their hairy arms, and that's almost as good.

Prufrock says something about how he wishes he were a crab. Oh, Prufrock! Always the joker. Wait, you were serious? That's kind of sad, my friend. Don't you have important things to do?

Oops! It looks like he didn't do that really important thing he meant to do. He was going to tell someone something life-altering, but he was afraid of being rejected. So he didn't. Oh well.

Meanwhile, Prufrock keeps getting older. He doesn't worry about that really important thing anymore. Instead, he worries about other important things, such as whether to roll his pant-legs or eat a peach.

It turns out that Prufrock really likes the ocean. He says he has heard mermaids singing - but they won't sing to him. Boy, you sure do talk a lot about yourself, Prufrock. Finally, he brings us back into the conversation. He talks about how we lived at the bottom of the sea with him (geez, we don't remember that one!). It turns out we were asleep in the ocean, but all of a sudden, we get woken up by "human voices." Unfortunately, as soon as we wake up, we drown in the salty ocean. Boy, what a day. We thought we were talking a walk, and now we're dead.








o! I am not Prince Hamlet, nor was meant to be;
Am an attendant lord, one that will do
To swell a progress, start a scene or two,
Advise the prince; no doubt, an easy tool,
Deferential, glad to be of use,
Politic, cautious, and meticulous;
Full of high sentence, but a bit obtuse;
At times, indeed, almost ridiculous -
Almost, at times, the Fool. *Just like Hamlets decision to kill his uncle, Prufrock is indecisive but decides he is not like hamlet because hamlet exclaims "to be or not to be" but Prufrock already decides it is not to be.

I grow old ... I grow old ...
I shall wear the bottoms of my trousers rolled.
Shall I part my hair behind? Do I dare to eat a peach?
I shall wear white flannel trousers, and walk upon the beach. *He realizes he is too old to make the big decision he needed to but masks his pain by making small stupid decisions like how to wear his pants.

We have lingered in the chambers of the sea
By sea-girls wreathed with seaweed red and brown
Till human voices wake us, and we drown. *Lingering has brought us to a life without purpose in which we grow insane with the lack of progress, relates to death by water. Chamber reminds me of when Prufrock is pacing outside the girls house waiting to tell her he loves her

Eliot.
communities broken up
mixture of love song and J.A.P
would you like to get to know/ go out with me
going to party- romantic
then line 3, patient euthanized in hotel
1 night, cheap hotel
sawdust restaurant, not fine dining
society women and paintings of michael angelo, superficial
*time reference
proof rock says there will be plenty of time
prepare face for faces you meet, put on roles
time for 100 indecissions
we aren't honest with each other
time for this, time for that, denial of short time
trivial decisions, takes courage for easy, little things
makes excuses about things
measure out life by cups of coffee
How should I presume?
stanza about eyes, bugs
Unpleasant image of revolution
notices imperfections
what should I say to women to disturb universe?
say I've seen lonely people*
hostile eyes, going to parties, crab can be himself*
wants to be heroic, get women to notice him, admits he's no profit, he gets laughed at

would it have been worth it to say listen to me, I've seen something important
That's not it at all
afraid he might be rejected
solitude, attempt to communicate
Italia, donta's inferno
I wouldn't tell you about horror of being alone if I thought you w


he Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock is a dramatic monologue of a typical modern man in the early 1900's and how he feels conflicted over his place in society. The speaker gives animated descriptions of the settings to make it clear that everything around him affects him in a negative way. For example, Eliot states "The yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window-panes / Licked its tongue into the corners of the evening / Lingered upon the pools that stand in drains," (Eliot 673). The speaker pays attention to these things around him in order to avoid people in the room who are talking about him.
The speaker asks himself if he dares to what one may assume is approach a woman, but is tormented by the thought, and chides himself for almost approaching her. The speaker then presumes to muddle over whether it would have been worth it to approach the woman. He states "And would it have been worth it, after all / After the cups, the marmalade, the tea /Among the porcelain, among some talk of you and me / Would it have been worth while" (Eliot 675). The speaker continues by contrasting himself to Hamlet, and describing specific characteristics of his own personality, and claiming that he "almost, at times" resembles a fool (Eliot 676).
The poem concludes with a series of ambiguous ocean images, for the purpose of the speaker's emotional distance and acceptance of who he is in this modern world. As previously mentioned, the speaker begins this poem by describing the settings in great detail, and it is apparent that these settings are concrete places, such as rooms or buildings. At these concrete places the speaker is struggling with his place in society, and during the ocean scenes he is coming to terms with that person. He declares "Shall I part my hair behind? Do I dare to eat a peach? / I shall wear white flannel trousers, and walk upon the beach. / I have heard the mermaids singing, each to each (Eliot 676). This stanza illustrates the speakers difficulty deciding where he belongs, and acts as a metaphor for his emotions. In the last stanza the speaker states "We have lingered in the chambers of the sea / By sea-girls wreathed with seaweed red and brown / Till human voices wake us, and we drown" (Eliot 677). This implies that the speaker finds comfort in the sea, and that humans, or more generally society, is what he wants to escape.
women question

paternal identity

Brothers call her bulldog

she decides to kill her self by drowning

water symbolically: water has surface, but also depth to the surface

jack is a doctor, sees her trying to commit suicuide and saves her. Job as doctor is to help/save people. Jack can't swim

private parts are submerged in the water. "Id" elements is cold

saves mabel, takes her to the fire to warm up and takes her clothes off. and gives her whiskey to warm


Mabel is confused and asks Jack if he was the one who saved her from the lake and undressed her. When Jack responds that it was him, she asks if he loves her. She then begins to insist - she grabs on to him and says repeatedly "you love me, you love me, I know you love me, I know." Jack is shocked and does not know how to respond. Mabel begins to kiss him, passionately, still repeating "you love me" over and over, until finally, Jack responds that he does.


An in-depth analysis of Mabel's character illustrates how her actions and demands for Jack's love are solely based on her emotional state. When Mabel, who feels her life is void and worthless, walks into the lake to end her life, she does not wish for anyone to rescue her. However, when Jack automatically jumps into the frigid waters to save her, not even knowing how to swim, he is acting in terms of his obligation to her as a doctor. Jack is also a human being who assumes that Mabel wants to be saved. This collision of intentions causes confusion between the two characters:

"'Did you dive into the pond for me?' she asked.

'No' he answered. 'I walked in. But I went overhead as well.'

'Why did you?' she asked.

'Because I didn't want you to do such a foolish thing,' he said.

'It wasn't foolish,' she said, still gazing at him as she lay on the floor, with a sofa cushion under her head. 'It was the right thing to do. I knew best, then.'

'I'll go and shift these wet things,' he said. But still he had not the power to move out of her presence, until she sent him. It was as if she had the life of his body in her hands, and he could not extricate himself. Or perhaps he did not want to."

Mabel feels the only reason Jack felt compelled to save her is because he loves her, while Jack feels he was simply doing his job.

This division is only unified when Mabel assumes the dominant role. She forces the idea of love onto Jack. She repeats the phrase "you love me, I know you love me." Mabel believes that because Jack saved her from the lake, carried her to the house and undressed her by the fire that he is essentially assuming responsibility for her and therefore he must plan to continue caring for her. This resonates deeply with Mabel, especially during this depressed and insecure time in her life where her future is uncertain and her family members are indifferent of her fate.

"He looked down at the tangled wet hair, the wild, bare animal shoulders. He was amazed, bewildered and afraid. He has never thought of loving her. He had never wanted to love her. When he rescued her and restored her, he was a doctor, and she was a patient. He had no single personal thought of her. Nay this introduction of the personal element was very distasteful to him, a violation of his professional honour. It was horrible. He revolted from it, violently. And yet - and yet - he had not the power to break away."

Even though the idea of loving Mabel horrified Jack, he somehow felt drawn to her. She was a victim, largely of herself, and Jack is the one person who offered her assistance.

As a result of her dominance, Jack submits to Mabel's demand for love after resolving his inner conflict. The idea of responsibility for Mabel initially fills Jack with annoyance and disgust. and at the same time, love. He loves her for being helpless, but he hates her for putting him in this situation. Mabel realizes his conflicting feelings and responds by saying, "I'm so awful, I'm so awful... you can't want to love me, I'm horrible." Jack does not use Mabel's doubt as an escape from this unwanted position. Instead, he tells her that he does want her, and that he wishes to marry her as soon as possible. In Lawrence's world, love is a form of submission. The dominant female, Mabel, uses force to make her male counterpart submit to her desire. These two people, strangers at first, are now quickly and impulsively committed to each other.

Jack and Mabel's relationship is almost entirely involuntary. Mabel commands Jack's love - Jack saves her from drowning and therefore he should be committed to her for life. What seemed to Jack as a simple yet heroic rescue turns into a life-long commitment. Lawrence argues that in saving Mabel, Jack is united to her through love, even if Jack's love for her is out of guilt rather than true emotion. Lawrence insists that love is a combination of impulsive, illogical emotions, and that through this kind of love Jack and Mabel become fatedly united.
dialogue deals with the psychology.
mabel thinks or is in love with her and dr say he loves her, but it may not be true

time, his clock has stopped, woman becomes emotional.
wants love, but can't be loved.




Father has died
No more money, sell last of horses
Brothers and a sister, JOE, MABEL, FRED, MALCOM
Fred, master of himself
Joe, getting married
Malcom, baby

Brothers all go separate way
Fred Henry and Jack go to bars and see women at bars at night
Before they went broke, amble had a little money
Mabel goes to clear off her grave, very carefully
Jack's house right inside the church
Mabel has power over jack
Jack mainly takes care of working people, many minors
Central image POND* and Jack sees Mabel heading toward pond and wading into pond
Mabel gets into the pond and almost drowns, Jack saves her and they come out in love


Mabel assumes that Jack must love her, since he has brought her back to the world of the living and purports to take care of her. The fact that he has removed her clothes (as a husband would) only seals their compact. She lunges toward him and clutches his legs, murmuring 'You love me. I know you love me, I know.' This is embarrassingly silly; yet inexplicably, he kisses her.

Now Jack has never, for one moment, felt an iota of love for Mabel; in fact, aside from the fact that she is his friend Fred's sister, he's never even looked at her twice. But suddenly he recognizes his obligation toward her. This fills him with co-mingled shame, frustration, and rage -- and, perversely, love. He loves her as one loves a helpless bird one has rescued from a fallen nest; yet he hates her for putting himself in this position.

Suddenly looking into his face, she recognizes with horror that he does not love her at all; 'I'm so awful, I'm so awful!. . . You can't want to love me, I'm horrible.' On the one hand, she would seem to be giving him an opportunity to extricate himself from this mess, but honor will not allow him to do it; as Lawrence points out, in kissing her in her nakedness 'he had crossed over the gulf to her, and all that he had left behind had become void.' Jack tells her 'I want you, I want to marry you, we're going to be married, quickly, quickly -- tomorrow if I can.' Jack, the country doctor whose life up to this moment has been full of sunlight and promise, has to quickly marry the horse-dealer's daughter so he will not have time for common sense to change his mind.
landscape with the fall of Icarus

he old Masters were never wrong about human suffering and its position in context with the rest of human society. While someone is suffering, others are going about their regular business. The elderly live in desperate hope for a miracle, but children are not particularly concerned. Even a martyr dies on the margins of society.


about suffering

*suffering- must run its course
kids brush up against death/ suffering but don't truly understand it / grasp the concept

"skating along the edge and the woods" on a pond

life goes on attitude

humans and suffering always happens and no one cares enough to actually do anything. we try to be empathetic, but you don't know what its actually like to be in that suffering if you not suffering.

It turns out that when bad things happen to people, other people are usually looking the other way. At least, that's what our speaker starts to think as he looks at Pieter Brueghel's "Landscape with the Fall of Icarus," a painting that depicts a lovely spring morning by the seaside...complete with a tiny pair of legs splashing around in the water. That would be Icarus. He fell out of the sky (it's a long story - read about it in the "Symbols, Imagery, Wordplay" section.)

Seeing the beautiful landscape coupled with a drowning gets our speaker to thinking. See, as far as he can tell, this Brueghel guy has got it just about perfect. Bad things tend to be surrounded by - well, by lots of good things. Sunny skies. Beautiful trees. Pretty, pretty people. With all of that good stuff around, who's going to notice when something bad is going on a few feet away?

That's not necessarily a bad thing, is it? After all, kids don't care when big events happen. At least, that's what our speaker realizes. Thinking about all the surroundings in Brueghel's painting leads him to free-think a bit about all of the ways that suffering is surrounded by the hustle and bustle of everyday life.

Finally, though, our speaker pulls his attention back to the painting. You could think of this poem as a bit of a backwards logic. Usually we move from description to analysis. Here, Auden slams us with analysis before giving us context. In other words, we're forced to think about the ways that it's relevant for us before we figure out why it matters to him. Pretty nifty, huh?



Musée des Beaux Arts" was composed in 1938, published under the title "Palais des beaux arts" in a newspaper in 1939, and included in the volume Another Time in 1940. It was written after Auden had spent time in Brussels, Belgium. The title refers to the museum that the poet visited while he was there, and the painting mentioned in the poem was hanging during the time of his visit. It is often considered a transition poem, as it occupies the space between the poet's early stage of abstruse, complicated poems and his latter, simpler, and more conversational period. The structure of the short poem is relatively simple, and it uses ekphrastic description (verbal description of images).

The museum Auden visited is known for its prominent collection of the Old Masters, particularly painters from the Netherlands. Many critics have discussed the painting mentioned in the poem, "Landscape with the Fall of Icarus" (1558), and others by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, a Renaissance-era painter, that were hanging in the gallery and may have influenced Auden in writing his poem. The identity of painter and painting is in doubt; critic Arthur F. Kinney maintains that while Brueghel painted this very scene, his version included the figure of Daedalus while the painting mentioned by Auden is actually a copy painted by Brueghel's son Pieter the Younger, which is exactly the same but leaves out Daedalus (father of Icarus). The painting depicts the end of the myth of Daedalus and his son Icarus told by Ovid, in which the two fashion wings for themselves to escape imprisonment, but Icarus flies too close to the sun and the wax on the wings melts, causing him to plunge to his death in the sea. This is the "disaster" mentioned in the poem.

Another Brueghel is The Numbering of Bethlehem, which depicts Joseph and Mary's arrival in Bethlehem to be counted for taxes, as told in the New Testament. The painting is full of small details, and Auden's lines about people walking "dully" along and the elderly waiting for the miraculous birth and the children skating happily along likely derive from this scene. There is also The Massacre of the Innocents, which Auden may have alluded to in the lines, "They never forget / That even the dreadful martyrdom must / run its course / Anyhow in a corner, some untidy spot / Where the dogs go on with their doggy / life, and the torturer's horse / Scratches its innocent behind against a tree." The dogs and horses are present in that painting, and no doubt inspired the lines.

These examples in the poem's first stanza (with the interlocking rhyme scheme ABCADEDBFCFCE) provide the context for the extended description of the Icarus painting in the second stanza (with a tighter rhyme scheme AABCDDBC). In each case, people go about their business or their play without comprehending, caring much about, or even knowing about another person's experience of suffering or hope or disaster. Children and animals do not have the elevated sympathy necessary to understand someone else's plight; they just keep "skating." Animals are blithely unaware of human suffering and merely attend to their biological needs.

Meanwhile, many adults remain unaware of or unconcerned by others' suffering. The ploughman "may" have noticed "the splash, the forsaken cry" of Icarus, but it was not "an important failure," and the plowing must go on. The ship nearby "must" have noticed, but it had "somewhere to get to," so it sailed "sailed calmly on." In the painting, another character, a shepherd is looking up, perhaps at Daedalus, but the poem does not explicitly mention this part of the scene; the poem notes only that "everything turns away / Quite leisurely from the disaster." Brueghel placed the ploughman's head, looking down at the ground, right by the shepherd's head, which emphasizes the contrast and the ploughman's unconcern. (A man on shore, near the legs of Icarus, does seem to be looking at him and even reaching out, but this character also is not mentioned in the poem.)
speaker associated with govenment

individual without even a name "to js/07/m/378

Communism takes place instead of religion
government and berauchy

the speaker is speaking on his behalf

just a regular man and did not challenge anything ( goes against the individual of the romanticism period)

speaking of everything he had owned for the modern man

purchases things the american way credit

conclusion he killed himself

the question is absurd

eugenist- improvement in creating the perfect human, (like hitler with blonde/blue eyes)


The poem begins with an ironic epigraph, "To JS/07 M 378 / This Marble Monument / Is Erected by the State."

The Bureau of Statistics and all other reports show that he will complied with his duties to "the Greater Community." He worked in a factory and paid his union dues. He had no odd views. The Social Psychology investigators found him to be normal, as did the Press: he was popular, "liked a drink," bought the daily paper, and had the "normal" reactions to advertisements. He was fully insured. The Health-card report shows he was in the hospital only once, and left cured.

The Producers Research and High-Grade Living investigators also showed he was normal and "had everything necessary to the Modern Man"—radio, car, etcetera. The Public Opinion researchers found "he held the proper opinions for the time of year," supporting peace in peacetime but serving when there was war. He was married and had the appropriate number of five children, according to the Eugenicist. He never interfered with the public schools.


It is absurd to ask whether he was free or happy, for if anything had been wrong, "we should certainly have heard."


t the end of the poem, the closing couplet asks, "Was he free? Was he happy? The question is absurd: / Had anything been wrong, we should certainly have heard." With these last lines comes the deeper meaning of the poem, the irony that despite all of the bureaucratic data gathering, some aspect of the individual might not have been captured. It becomes clear that the citizen is also "unknown" because in this statistical gathering of data, the man's individuality and identity are lost. This bureaucratic society, focused on its official view of the common good, assesses a person using external, easily-catalogued characteristics rather than respect for one's uniqueness, one's particular thoughts, feelings, hopes, fears, and goals.

Interestingly, and ironically, the speaker himself is also unknown. The professionals in the poem— "his employers," "our Social Psychology workers," "our researchers into Public Opinion," "our Eugenicist"— are just as anonymous and devoid of personality. While a person might be persuaded that he is free or happy, the evidence of his life shows that he is just one more cog in the faceless, nameless bureaucratic machine.
Ambulances is, in its totality, a celebration of the values of consciousness. It modestly and devoutly collects evidence of ordinary life to create a truth which can be universally acknowledged. The poem is a depressing one. The very title suggests something saddening. Ambulances drive through a city street, and stop to pick up a critically sick man and take him to a hospital.
Everybody looks at an ambulance when it is driving through the streets, though an ambulance does not look back at anybody. The sick man has been taken away to a hospital and the sense of loss which the spectators might have experienced would then abruptly come to an end. The man, who has been carried to the hospital by the ambulance, had led a meaningful life which was a mixture of family relationships and an observance of the fashions of the time. But that life has now come to an end and has, in fact, lost all its meaning.


The main idea in this poem is that an ambulance signifies illness, and that it fills the spectators with the thought of death. The first two stanzas of the poem contain vivid and realistic imagery of the ambulances threading their way through the streets of a city possibly at noon-time when there are many loud noises coming from the traffic and from the crowds of people. When an ambulance comes to a stop, women coming from the shops look at the wild white face of the sick man who is being taken away to a hospital. The remaining three stanzas of this poem contain the poet's reflections and meditations on the sad fate which awaits all of us. The entire life of an individual loses its meaning in the face of his approaching death. What gives to the poem Ambulances its impressive authority is its relentless insistence that "all streets in time are visited," and its closing assertion that to be taken away by an ambulance "brings closer what is left to come, /And dulls to distance all we are."
narrator is the character


narrator is skewed because it is written in a certain perspective



The Moment Before the Gun Went Off setting 1948 South Africa during Apartheid, despicable policy that stated race determines the rights one has in society

The Moment Before the Gun Went Off POV 3rd person omniscient reliable; the reader knows the entire story and the narrator relays events as they happened (unbiased)

The Moment Before the Gun Went Off themes stereotypes are not always true; racism can color people's perception of facts and events; Truth can be overlooked because of bias (racism); Racial tension is like a loaded gun, when it explodes, the truth is obscured

racism engraved in culture

The Moment Before the Gun Went Off main conflict Person v. Society- society is not seeing all the facts, story is exploited to fit all of the Apartheid stories of white brutality

"he too stares at the grave, the dead mans mother and he state at the grave in communication like that between the black man outside and the white man inside the cab the moment before the gun went off


The Moment Before the Gun Went Off symbols Barbed Wire: isolation caused by race


In the following short story by her, set in the years preceding the fall of apartheid, Marais van der Vyver, a white South African, shoots one of his black farm labourers and kills him. The death attracts considerable publicity, and Marais soon discovers there are a lot of people who have their own interpretation of the events. But there is one fact they could never guess - and which he can never tell them.
pghtogopgrahs and she his face "guilty, guilty

how could they know that they do no know

anything the young black callously shot through the negligence of the white man was not the frames boy; he was his son

it was his son
mixed