27 terms

Chapter 10 Vocabulary - Glencoe Biology

Chapter 10 vocabulary
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Heredity
Passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring.
Trait
Characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or recessive.
Genetics
Branch of biology that studies heredity.
Gamete
Male and female sex cells; sperm and eggs.
Fertilization
Fusion of male and female gametes.
Zygote
Diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg.
Pollination
From male reproductive organs to female reproductive organs of plants, usually within the same species.
Hybrid
Offspring formed by parents having different forms of a trait.
Allele
Alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism.
Dominant
Observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait.
Recessive
Trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait.
Law of segregation
Mendelian principle explaining that because each plant has two different alleles, it can produce two different types of gametes. During fertilization, male and female gametes randomly pair to produce four combinations of alleles.
Phenotype
Outward appearance of an organism, regardless of its genes.
Genotype
Combination of genes in an organism.
Homozygous
When there are two identical alleles for a trait.
Heterozygous
When there are two different alleles for a trait.
Law of independent assortment
Mendelian principle stating that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.
Diploid
Cell with two of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a diploid, or 2n, number of chromosomes.
Haploid
Cell with one of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a haploid or n, number of chromosomes.
Homologous chromosome
Paired chromosomes with genes for the same traits arranged in the same order.
Meiosis
Type of cell division of body cell produces four gametes, each containing half the number of chromosomes as a parent's body cell.
Sperm
Haploid male sex cells produced by meiosis.
Egg
Haploid female sex cell produced by meiosis.
Sexual reproduction
Pattern of reproduction that involves the production and subsequent fusion of haploid sex cells.
Crossing over
Exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations.
Genetic recombination
Major source of genetic variation among organisms caused by re-assortment or crossing over during meiosis.
Non-disjunction
Failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis; results in gametes with too many or too few chromosomes.
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