Passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring.
Characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or recessive.
Branch of biology that studies heredity.
Male and female sex cells; sperm and eggs.
Fusion of male and female gametes.
Diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg.
From male reproductive organs to female reproductive organs of plants, usually within the same species.
Offspring formed by parents having different forms of a trait.
Alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism.
Observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait.
Trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait.
Law of segregation
Mendelian principle explaining that because each plant has two different alleles, it can produce two different types of gametes. During fertilization, male and female gametes randomly pair to produce four combinations of alleles.
Outward appearance of an organism, regardless of its genes.
Combination of genes in an organism.
When there are two identical alleles for a trait.
When there are two different alleles for a trait.
Law of independent assortment
Mendelian principle stating that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.
Cell with two of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a diploid, or 2n, number of chromosomes.
Cell with one of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a haploid or n, number of chromosomes.
Paired chromosomes with genes for the same traits arranged in the same order.
Type of cell division of body cell produces four gametes, each containing half the number of chromosomes as a parent's body cell.
Haploid male sex cells produced by meiosis.
Haploid female sex cell produced by meiosis.
Pattern of reproduction that involves the production and subsequent fusion of haploid sex cells.
Exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations.
Major source of genetic variation among organisms caused by re-assortment or crossing over during meiosis.
Failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis; results in gametes with too many or too few chromosomes.