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Psychological Core

the most basic and deepest attitudes, values, interest, motives, and self worth of a person - the "real person"

Typical Responses

how someone typically responds to the environment. Based on values of psychological core.

Role Related Behavior

how one acts in a particular social situation. Behavior changes as your perceptions of the environment change.

Psychodynamic Approach

behavior is determined by unconscious constantly changing factors that are in conflict with each other. Emphasis on understanding a person as a whole rather the identifying isolated characteristics

Trait approach

behavior is determined by relatively stable traits. Personality traits are consistent in a variety of situations.

Situational approach

behavior determined by situation or environment. Situation is more important at determinant then personality traits. ex: introvert being assertive during a mugging or football player being violent when he is not.

interactional approach

behavior determined by both person and the situational factors as well by interactions. How a person responds depends on environment and psychological traits. ex: hostile person at a football game will not be hostile in front of his mom but will in front of his friends.

phenomenological approach

behavior determined by accounting for situational and personal characteristics. Their outlook on themselves will be in direct relation with how they act.

Big five model #1

neuroticism vs. emotional stability
nervous, depressed, anxiety vs. emotional stability

Big five model #2

extroversion vs. introversion
sociable vs. introvert

Big five model #3

openness to experience- curiosity, need for variety

Big five model #4

agreeableness - amiability, modesty

Big five model #5

Conscientiousness - achievement striving, self discipline


personality style characterized by setting high standards standards, striving for flawlessness, and being overly critical. Leads to both good and bad consequences.

Research on Psychodynamic approach

impact: little influence, hasn't been adopted
weakness: focuses on internal determinants not on environment.
contribution: awareness of unconscious determinants.

Research on Trait Approach

impact: little influence
weakness: traits will not always help predict behavior in certain situations.
contribution: emphasizes importance of traits.

Research on Situational Approach

impact: little influence
weakness: situation will not always influence ones behavior.
contribution: emphasizes importance of situation

Research on Interactional Approach

impact: considerable influence. Has been adopted by modern sport psychologist.
weakness: none
contribution: emphasizes consideration of both traits and situation = behavior

Research on Phenomenological Approach

impact: considerable influence. Has been adopted by contemporary sport psychologist.
weakness: none
contribution: emphasizes how a person sees themselves and the environment = behavior

Measuring Personality: 2 types

situation-specific and general

What way of Measuring Personality is more accurate?


Situation-specific and general both consider

personality, and specific situation (interactional approach)

Most effect way to compare test results?

with a person's own previous test scores... rather then a group of norms.

Projective test..

are interesting but difficult to score.

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