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Career Development

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the five most influential theories of today include
Super, Holland, Gottfredson, Krumboltz, Savickas
Actuarial career theories are focused on
structure of the individuals such as needs, traits, interests, and designed a theory of how career development occurs from that basis
trait-factor and needs-based theories are examples of
actuarial theories
developmental career theories focus on
career development occurring over time, usually through stages
developmental career theories include various structures such as
self-concept and need
What kind of psychologist did SUper define himself as?
differential-developmental-social-phenomenological
Supers theory has been characterized as
life-span, life-space
Super's early conception of career development included
vocational developmental stages and vocational developmental tasks
vocational development stages are (5)
growth, exploratory, establishment, maintenance, decline
What happens in Super's growth stage?
development of capacity, interests and self-consept
What happens in Super's exploratory stage?
15-24, tentative choices made
What happens in Super's establishment stage?
25-44, trial in work situations and stablize
What happens in Super's maintenance stage?
45-64, continual adjustment process
What happens in Super's decline stage?
65+, preretirement, work output issues and retirement
Super's "decline" was later changed to
"disengagement"
Super identified the concept of career maturity and later changed it to
career adaptability
Super identified 5 vocational tasks, which include
crystallization, specification, implementation, stabilization, consolidation
Super's crystallization is
14-18, formulating a general vocational goal through awareness
Super's specification
18-21, moving from a tentative to a specific vocational choice
Super's implementaion
21-24, completing training and entering employment
Super's stabilization
24-35, confirming a preferred choice by performing the job
Super's consolidation
35+, becoming established in a career, advancing, achieving status
Super's vocational developmental tasks were initially focused on what kind of people?
white, middle class, college educated males
Super realized that we can _______ or ________ through developmental tasks
repeat or recycle
Later, Super looked at careers more holistically and presented what concept?
life-career rainbow
What did the life-career rainbow include?
life span with its major stages and life space which consists of the roles we play
What are the 9 major roles we play in life, according to Super?
child, student, citizen
spouse, homemaker, parent,
worker, leisurite and pensioner
Super said that roles are played out in 4 theaters -
home, community, school, workplace
What was the name of Super's graphic representation of the determinents that comprise one's self conceptt?
Archway Model
What does each pillar in the Archway Model represent?
One pillar - factors and variables within the individual that influence career development - needs, aptitudes, interests and achievements
Other pillar- external factors - family, community, labor marker
What does the arch between both pillars inn the Archway Model represent?
Self of the individual
Super's Career Pattern Study examined the
vocational behavior of 9th graders all the way into their 30s
John Holland's theory is a _________approach
actuarial - structural
Holland's types provide
the energy and motivation to do certain thinking, learn certain skills, associate with particular people, and avoid other skills and people
Holland says that career choice is an
expression of personality
Holland says we choose a career based on
the stereotypes we hold about different jobs or careers
Holland identifies 6 modal personal orientations which are
realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, conventional
Holland's Realistic type is
aggressive, prefers explicit tasks requiring physical manipulation, has poor interpersonal skills - mechanic, technician
Holland's Investigative type is
intellectual, prefers systematic, creative investigation activities, has poor persuasive and social skills - chemist, computer programmer
Holland's Artistic type is`
imaginative, prefers self-expression via physical, verbal or other materials, dislikes systematic and ordered activities
Holland's social type is
social, prefers activities that inform, develop or enlighten others, dislikes activities involving tools or machines - teacher, counselor
Holland's Enterprising type is
extroverted, prefers leadership and persuasive roles, dislikes abstract, cautious activities - manager, sales personnel
Holland's Conventional type is
practical, prefers ordered, structured activities, dislikes ambiguous and unsystematized tasks - cost accountant
Occupational environments may be categorized into 6 types. They are
the same as an individuals types
Instruments that use Holland's types include (4)
Vocational Preference Inventory
Self-Directed Search
Strong Interest Inventory
Career Assessment INventory
What visual did Holland use to explain important concepts?
the RIASEC hexagon
consistency (Holland's RIASEC)
adjacent pairs of types are most psychologicalls alike than nonadjacent pairs of types
differentiation (Holland's RIASEC)
an individuals profile of six types has significant highs and lows (differentiated) or the profile of six types tends to be flat (undifferentiated)
congruence ((Holland's RIASEC))
the individuals type and the environment type are the same
vocational identity (Holland's RIASEC)
high identity individuals are those who have a clear and stable picture of their interests and goals
Linda Gottfredson's developmental theory is called
Circumscrpition and COmpromise
Circumscription and Compromise focuses on
the vocational developmental processes experiences by children - Individuals circumscribe (narrow down their occupations) and compromise as they develop
What is central and influences occupation selection according to Gottfredson?
vocational self concept
According to circumscribe and compromise, there are four developmental stages
orientation to size and power
orientation to sex roles
orientation to social valuation
orientation to internal unique self
orientation to size and power, stage 1
3-5, children are concrete thinkers and begin to understand what it means to be an adult
orientation to sex roles, stage 2
6-8, children learn that adults have different roles and occupations are sex-typed
orientation to social valuation, stage 3
9-13, there is greater awareness of values held by peers, family and community occupations vary greatly in social value - desirability
orientation to internal unique self, stage 4
14+, aspirations, values and interests are critical
Young children, 6-8, tend to choose occupations that
fit to their gender
Preadolescents tend to chose occupations that
have social values consistent with their perceived social class
In teenage + years, individuals tend to choose occupations
with self awareness of personal characteristics
Gottfredson says that individuals develop a cognitive map of occupations based on
sex-type, social value (prestige) and field of work (interest)
On Gottfredson's cognitive map, what area is identified that is consistent with the individuals self-concept and includes the occupations in that range?
zone of acceptablealternatives
Krumblotz came of with what theory (LTCC)
learning theory of career counseling
Krumboltz used who's social learning theory to help identify the principal concepts?
Bandura's
3 important concepts of Krumboltz's LTCC are
reinforcement theory
cognitive informational processing
classical behaviorism
According to Krumboltzs, career development and career decision making involve 4 things
genetic endowments and special abilities
environmental conditions and events
instrumental and associative learning experience
task approach skills
Genetic endowments and special abilities includes
inherited qualities which may set limites on career opportunities
environmental conditions and events influence
skill development, activities and career preferences
instrumental and associative learning experiences are
learning through reactions to consequences, results of actions and through reactions to others. n
task approach skills
problem-solving skills, work habits, mental sets, emotional and cognitive responses
What instrument may be used to identify clients' mental barriers (made by Krumboltz)
The Career Beliefs Inventory
planned happenstance, by krumboltz, means
unplanned and chance events influencing an individual career development and such occurrences should be expected and taken advantage of
What 4 devepmentalists believed occupational choice progressed through three periods: fantasy, tentative, and realistic
Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad and Herma (The Ginzberg Group)
The Ginzburg group says that fantasy is
birth - 11, play becomes work oriented
The Ginzburg group says that tentative is
11-17, four stages in this period are interest, capacity, value and transition
The Ginzburg group says that realistic is
17+, three stages are exploration, crystallization, and specification
Who used ideas in his own theory from the Ginzburg group?
Super
Ann Roe comes from which approach?
needs
What did Roe believe influenced the needs structure for each child?
genetic factors, environmental experiences and parent-child relations
Roe believes that _________ were chosen to meet ______ throught either person or non person oriented ocuupations
careers - needs
Roe developed a field-by-level classification of occupations she identified ___ levels and ____ fields
6, 8
Roe's 6 levels are
professional and managerial (highest)
Professional and managerial (regular)
Semi-professional and managerial
Skilled
Semi-skilled
unskilled
Roe's 8 fields include
Service
busniess contact
managerial
general cultural
arts and entertainment
technology
outdoor
science
Robert Hoppock is a _______ career theorist and identified the role of:
need-based - needs in choosing, changing and being satisfied with career
Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman eblieves that career development occured as part of
cognitive development as one resolved ego relevent crises
Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman said career development [paralleled
the 8 psychosocial stages identified by Erickson
Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman said that career decision making is a continuous process consisting of 2 phases
anticipation/preoccupation
implementation/adjustment
According to Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman's anticipation/preoccupation, this includes (4)
exploration, crystallization, choice, clarification
The phases of Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman's Implementation/Adjustment include
induction, reformation, integration
According to Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman, what is at the sen of potential self-impowerment and self-development?
personality reality (I-power)
Who presented a theory of career development based on cognitive information processing (CIP)?
Reardon, Lenz, Sampson, and Peterson
CASVE (in CIP)
a sequential procedure that involves the following processing skills: communication, analysis, synthesis, valuing, execution
Communication (CASVE)
identifying the career-related needs of the client
Analysis (CASVE)
identifying the problem components and placing them in a conceptual framework
Synthesis (CASVE)
formulating courses of action or alternatives
Valuing (CASVE)
judging each action as to its potential for success or failure and impact on others
Execution (CASVE)
developing plans and implementation strategies
Banduras theory is
social cognitive theory and self-efficency
self-efficiency postulates
an individuals expectations will influence whether a behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how persistent the individual will be in the face of barriers
In a career domain, self efficiency beliefs will influence
choice, performance and persistence
Nancy Betz and Gail Heckett believe self-efficacy concepts explain
gender differences in career choice
Personal agency reflects an individual's
ability and power to achieve objectives
Self efficacy can be strengthened through
learning experiences such as:
personal performance accomplishments
vicarious learning
social persuasion
pysiological states and reactions
The constructivist approach suggests
that individuals construct their own reality or truth through their own way of organizing information, which becomes very subjective and focuses on how individuals extract meaning from their present situation
Contextualism implies that career development is a
constant interplay of forces withing the individual, environment and the interaction between the two
Through constructivism and contextualism, the goal of the career counselor is to encourage the client to
make meaning of his or her situation
What may reduce the possibility of constructing personal meaning?
dissecting events into very small peieces
The focus of constructivism and contextualism is
actions which are cognitively and socially based
actions in constructivism and contextualism, are viewed from 3 perspectives
bheavior which occurs
internal state (affect)
their social meaning
Savickas approach is based on
career construction theory
In career construction theory, the counselor is viewed as
an active agent assisting career clients to make sense of their life and work in order to be successful and satisfied
Savickas presented the concept of life design as a paradigm. In this paradigm, individuals construct careers through
identifying and presenting small stories in response to a few questions. Stories are then deconstructed with the counselor and reconstructed to form a life portrait
The life design paradigm focuses on
centextual possibilities, nonlinear progress, dynamic processes, multiple perspectives and personal patterns which represent the world of work today
What idea by Savickas takes into account the changing nature of the workplace (needs for workers to be flexible, employable, ability to be casual, self-employed etc.)
life design paradigm
H.B Gelatt focuses on
the decision making process in 5 steps
Gelatt's 5 step decision making process:
recognize a need to make a decision
collect data and look at courses of action
besides looking at courses of action, examine potential outcomes and their probability
attend to your value system
evaluate and make decision, and the decision can be investigatory or permanent
Gelatt's career decision making model is called _______________ and can be viewed as a whole-brained approach
Positive Uncertainty
Gelatt said what two components must be considered in decision making?
rational and intuitive
Trait-factor approach is sometimes called
actuarial or matching approach
Trait-factor approach was developed by
Frank Parsons
Frank Parsons was considered "The Father of
Guidance"
Who wrote Choosing a Vocation?
Frank Parsons
Trait-factor means (3)
study the individual (traits)
survey occupations (factors)
match the person with an occupation
Williamson refined Trait-factor approach with 6 steps:
analysis, synthesis, diagnosis, prognosis, counseling, follow-up
sociological or situational model of career development focus on
the reasons why individuals choose the work they do (what family exposes themt o, ethnic and cultural factors, risk behavior, work identify, career mobility, local labor market, education, training, employment opportunities)
John Crites developed what model?
comprehensive
In comprehensive model of career counseling, the counselor makes 3 diagnoses of the problem
differential (what are the problems)
dynamic ( why have the problems occurred)
decisional ( how are the problems being dealt with)
After Crites diagnosis, what are the following steps for counseling? (3)
client centered and developmental counseling
psychodynamic techniques,
trait-factor and behavioral approaches
What instrument did Crites create?
Career Maturity Inventory
4 factors that might affect decision making include
risk taking style
investment (time, money, gratification etc)
personal values
self-efficacy
Early career theories have limited generalizability to
women, non-whites and other ages
What factors allow career theories to evolve?
workplace trends, women in the labor market, increasing multicultural population, single family homes, dual earners
undecided implies the individual
needs more information and then can or will make a decision - its a state of being
indecisiveness is
an ongoing trait of the individual which implies that even with more information, the individual has problems making a decision
career counseling approaches are based on whether
the individual is undecided versus indecisive
career development is viewed as
a lifelong process in which we develop values, skills, interests and knowledge of the world of work
define job
one person in one position doing a set of tasks
define occupation
a definable work activity found in many locations
define career
a series of jobs and occupations one does
define career in terms of Super
all of the work and other life roles one engages in
define lifestyle
refers to the persons orientation and preference in regard to career, family, leisure, place of residence, work climate and overall style of life
define portfolio career
the fact that many workers are engaged in more than one line of work at the same time.
define encore career
many retired individuals by choice or necessity are returning to work
define leisure
periods of time in which an individual enagged in activites or pursuits chosen freely such as relaxation, hobbies, sports, travel
compensatory theory of leisure
do you compensate skills, abilities and interested for what you cannot do on the job
spillover theory of leisure
does what you do on the job spillover into your leisure (do both things use the same skills?)
define career guidance
assists individuals in understanding and acting upon self knowledge of opportunities in work, education and leisure and to develop decision making skills
define career counseling
the emphasis is on career development of an individual with special attention to values and attitudes, in a dynamic environment with a focus on self-understanding, career information and career planning and decision making
6 steps of the career counseling process
establish a relationship
problem identification
assessment ( a continual process)
provide information (inform client of possibilities, opportunities, and resources)
decision making
implementation/follow-up
Diveristy, in career counseling, includes
dimensions such as gender, SES, age, spirituality, enthinicty, disability and sexual orientation
6 aspects to understand about adults in a career transition
identify issues (values and needs may be changing)
skills may be obsolete (possible retraining)
physical capacities may be changing
family structure (empty nest issues)
leaisure, lifestyle, pre-retirement issues
may lack info resources and job seeking skills
9 aspects to consider for cultural diversity
sensitive to individual, family and culture of client
perceptions of power, work, time, and counseling
sensitive to collectivistic vs indivudalistic framework
techniques and goals consistent with values
level of acculturation ( current beliefs and world view)
awareness of socio-political influences on culture
discrimination and stereotyping in labor market
minority groups are viewed as having less vocational info
must encourage and support clients in nontraditional jobs
7 aspects to consider for people with disabilities
most disabilities are not perceptible
functional limitations and adjustment to them
self-concept and social/interpersonal skills need to be assessed
IL and coping skills
counselor advocacy with potential employers
state vocational rehab services
ADA must be known
4 aspects to consider for LGBT
the repercussions of coming out
discriminations
employers do not recognize same sex partners for benefit purposes
no federal law addressing discrimination based on orientation
define expressed interests
those spoken or reported
define manifested interests
determined by examining what a person is studying, previous jobs held, and what activities the person likes
tested interests are those
measures via tests of inventories
when testing, the counselor needs to be sensitive to
the instruments appropriateness for that clients cultural and linguistic context
Examples of aptitude tests include
O*Net ability profiler
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery
Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT)
Iowa Tests of Basic Skills - ITBS
achievement test
Strong Interest Inventory
Interest Test
Scholastic Assessment Test
Achievement Test
Mybers Briggs
Personality test
O*Net Work Importance Profiler
Values test
American College test
Achievement test
O*Net Interest Priofiler
Interest
Kuder Career Search Planning
INterest
Supers Work Value Inventory
Value Test
Minnesota Importance Questionnair
values Test
COPSystem 3C
Interest test
Campbell Interest Skill Survey
Interests
World-of-Work map
a method organizing families of occupations - incorporates Holands codes - incoporates tasks working with People, Data, Things and Ideas
Two Computer Assisted Career Guidance Systems that measure interests, values and skills include
SIGI 3, and DISCOVER
Outplacement counseling is
career counseling provided to workers of an organization who are to be terminated
retirement counseling assists individuals in examining
their circumstances, options, fears and possibilities, addresing family, home, leisure, employment, social, medical, financial, and legal concerns
4 levels of career education are
career awareness (elementary)
career exploration (middle/junior high)
career orientation (high school)
career prep (high school)
a displaced homemaker is
a woman who was a homemaker and is looking for employment
a dislocated worker is
anyone who becomes unemployed because of obsolete or no longer needed skills, downsizing, rightsizing, company relocation, shutdown or high unemployment
potential confliects for dual-career or dual-earner couples are
home and children chores are not equitable
whose job take precedence if a career move is offered
time for leisure
woman may make more money than men
identity tension line
the comfort area each sex has based on sex role socialization
when the woman becomes the second earner, she typically
maintains the majority of her original household
glass ceiling refers to
the set of restraints, typically imposed by men, which impact womens ability to move up the career ladder within an organization
The FMLA (Act) provides
a total of 12 weeks of unpaid leave during any 12 month period. It may be taken by a new parent or to care for an immediate family memeber who is ill
The fastest growing occupational clusters are
RNs, personal care aides and retail salespersons
the slowest growing occupation clusters will be
lumber workers, locomotive firers and postal service clerks
federal employment will _______ during the next ten years but state and local government employment will _________
decrease, increase
from lowest to highest unemployment rate (race and gender)
white male, white female, Hispanic male, Hispanic female, black female, black male
Two reasons short terms unemployment turns into long term is because
discouragement and less effort may be put into job search
employers discriminate against long term unemployment
Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, 2014
consolidates programs for employment and training, adult education as well as programs under the 1973 Rehab Act