Chapter 3 The Biological bases of behavior
65 need-know terms for AP Psych
Terms in this set (65)
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
A technique that temporarily enhances or depresses neural activity in a specific are of the brain.
A limited time span for the development of an organism that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the organism is especially responsive to certain experiences.
Refers tot he reproductive success of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success in the population.
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
Neuron part that contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
A long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons, or to muscles or glands.
An insulating jacket, derived from glia cells that encases some axons.
small knobs at the end of the axon that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters.
A junction where information is transmitted between neurons.
The stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron.
A process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic neuron.
Posits that heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are most likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be "selected" over time.
A microscopic gap between the terminal buttons of the sending neuron and the cell membrane of another cell.
chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another.
Postsynaptic Potential (PSP)
A voltage change at the receptor site of a neuron.
An electric potential that increases the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
An electric potential that decreases the likelihood that a postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
A technique for assessing heredity influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble each other on a specific trait.
A chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter.
A chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter.
An entire family of internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structures and effects.
Peripheral Nervous System
System that includes all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.
Bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that travel together in the peripheral nervous system.
Somatic Nervous System
System make up of the nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and sensory receptors.
Afferent Nerve Fibers
Axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body.
Efferent Nerve Fibers
Axons that carry information outward tot he central nervous system from the periphery of the body.
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
System made up of the nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands.
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies.
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally conserves bodily resources.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
System that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
A solution that fills the hollow cavities (ventricles) of the brain and circulates around the brain and spinal cord.
A device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp.
Assessing heredity influence by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins on a trait.
Method that involves destroying a piece of the brain by means of a strong electric current delivered through an electrode.
Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB)
Method that involves sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate (activate) it.
Part of the brain that includes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem, the medulla and the pons.
The segment of the brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain.
Part of the brain encompassing the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum.
A structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex.
A structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs.
A densely connected network of structures located beneath the cerebral cortex, involved, in the control of emotion, motivation, and memory.
The convoluted out layer of the cerebrum.
The right and left halves of the cerebrum.
The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.
The process of determining the location and chemical sequence of specific genes or chromosomes.
Surgery in which the corpus callosum is severed to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures.
System of glands that secrete chemicals into the blood stream that help control bodily functions.
The chemical substances released by the endocrine glands.
The "master gland" of the endocrine system.
Threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information.
A one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg.
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.
A gene that is expressed when the paired genes are different (heterozygous).
A gene that is masked when paired genes are heterozygous.
A person's genetic makeup.
The ways in which a person's genotype is manifested in observable characteristics.
Characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes.
The sum of an individuals' own reproductive success, plus the effects the organism has on the reproductive success of the related others.
Twins that result when two eggs are fertilized simultaneously by different sperm cells, forming two separate zygotes.
Left-right imbalances between the cerebral hemispheres in the speed of visual or auditory process.
Twins that emerge from one zygote that splits.
An interdisciplinary field that studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traits.
The two genes in a specific pair are the same.
The two genes in a specific pair are different.
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