gatherings of Christian bishops organized to define the basic elements of Christianity
Where the first Christian council was held.
Jesus is "consubstantial" with the Father, he is divine; Arianism
early teaching of the church that was heretical by saying that Jesus was not God but created by God
Heresy claiming that there is only one nature in Christ and that His human nature is "incorporated" into the Divine Nature.
the leadership of the Roman Catholic Church, The former center of both the ancient Roman Republic and the Roman empire; capital of present-day Italy.
The Christian religion of Europe that formed from Christianity's schism between the remains of the western and eastern Roman Empire . The Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
Emperor Constantine,AD 330 moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city Byzantium in the east, and renamed the city. This city became the capital of the Roman empire. It was strategically located for trade and defense purposes.
the civilization that developed from the eastern Roman Empire following the death of the emperor Justinian (C.E. 565) until the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
a way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
Belief that human beings had been created as divine creative power, but had freely chosen to enter the material world.
the state of being unmarried chosen by priests and religious so that they may dedicate their lives totally to jesus christ and gods people
a challenge to or overturning of traditional beliefs, customs, and values, any movement against the religious use of images
The title of Temujin when he ruled the Mongols (1206-1227). It means the 'universal' leader. He was the founder of the Mongol Empire.
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde. (p. 333)
Mongols who captured Russian cities and destroyed the Kievan state in 1236. However, they left the Russian Orthodox church and aristocracy intact.
a Turkic literary language of medieval central Asia (named for one of the sons of Genghis Khan)
A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia
The prince that made Moscow the new capital of Russia, and he overthrew the Mongols that were dominating Russia.
Ivan IV the Terrible
Ruled from 1533-1584; Was responsible for the death of thousands, including his own son; Created the Oprichnina in order to destroy the Boyars; Believed in a Strong Centralized Government; expanded mostly south
The capital of the Republic of Tatarstan, it lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in central European Russia.
a region of central and eastern Russia, stretching from the Ural mountains to the pacific ocean, known for its mineral resources and for being a place of political exile
An Italian trading city on the Ariatic Sea, agreed to help the Byzantines' effort to regain the lands in return for trading privileges in Constantinople.
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons. (p. 397)
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
prominent Catholic priest who criticized the purchase of indulgences and the right of bishops and popes to take up the sword in the name of the Church; burned at the stake
a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
He believed in a heliocentric, or sun-centered, conception of the universe. He argued that the Sun was at the center of the universe. The planets revolved around the sun.
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
Being made right with God. It is a free and undeserved gift of God through the sacrifice of Jesus Christ.
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
Members of a Protestant church governed by Presbyters, elders, and founded on the teachings of John Knox.
This was one of the tax-supported churches in 1775. They belonged to the Church of England, which was the official faith in Georgia, North and South Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, and a part of New York. It mainly served as a prop of England authority. This faith was far less intense than the other established church, the Congregational Church.
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
A shi'ite muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the persians, ottomans and arabs
Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans; unified under Mehmed I; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world.
Christian boys forced in the service of the Sultan and made into one of the finest military at the times
any of various small-grained annual cereal and forage grasses of the genera Panicum, Echinochloa, Setaria, Sorghum, and Eleusine
Selim the Grim
Mehmed's grandson; captured Mecca and Medina and Cairo; effective sultan/great general
Ottoman sultan who brought the Ottoman Empire to its height; he succeeded in defeating the Habsburgs and capturing Vienna.
Turkish cavalrymen in the Early period of the Ottoman Empire who were given timars and received all the taxes from them, but were expected to maintain troops and show up to battle.