) Explain the birth of the solar system using condensation theory. Include the terms nebula, planetisimals, protosun, and accretion disk.
The solar nebula after it has contracted and flattened to form a spinning disk . ) Dust grains act as condensation nuclei, forming clumps of matter that collide, stick together, and grow into moon-sized planetesimals. The composition of the grains depends on location within the nebula. (c) After a few million years, strong winds from the still-forming Sun will soonexpel the nebular gas. By this time, some particularly massive planetesimals in the outer solar system have already captured large amounts of gas from the nebula. (d) With the gas ejected, planetesimals continue to collide and grow. The gas giant planets are already formed. (e) Over the course of a hundred million years or so, planetesimals are accreted or ejected, leaving a few large planets that travel in roughly circular orbit
) How did Earth's atmosphere form? Include the terms primary atmosphere and
secondary atmosphere.
Development of Earth's atmosphere:
Primary atmosphere: In the first billion years when earth formed. These gases were light, hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia, and water vapor. There was not enough gravity to hold them down and they escaped into space.
Secondary atmosphere: Gases from volcanic activity (outgassing) released N2, CO2, CH4(methane) , NH3 (ammonia), H2O vapor, sulfur dioxide. As Earth's surface temperature fell and the water vapor condensed, oceans formed. Much of the carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide became dissolved in the oceans or combined with surface rocks. Oxygen is such a reactive gas that any free oxygen that appeared at early times was removed as quickly as it formed. As solar ultraviolet radiation liberated
nitrogen from its chemical bonds with other elements, a nitrogen-rich atmosphere slowly appeared. Life appeared about 3.5 BYA
Compare and contrast Earth's atmosphere with that of Venus.
Venus atmosphere : Radio waves were used to explore the atmosphere. Heavy, with clouds of sulfuric acid. 95 % CO2 (carbon dioxide), 3% Nitrogen (N2)Using instruments which detect UV radiation. At levels below 30 km, the atmosphere is
clear. At 30-70 km there are fast moving clouds. The whole atmosphere circles the world in 4 days, so blowing hard (superrotation 220 mi/hr)Greenhouse gases Atmospheric pressure: 90 ATM because the atmosphere extends so much higher than the 100 km height we have here on Earth
Venus' rotation period is longer than its period of revolution around the Sun
Mercury, Venus, and Earth have similar densities
Mercury has a 3:2 spin-orbit resonance due to tidal effects with the Sun.
Although it has no liquid water, Mercury has a tidal bulge.
Mercury shows us the widest range of surface temperatures between day and night of any of the planets
The surface temperature of Venus is 750K, even hotter than Mercury.
The Moon's far side is more ancient and heavily cratered; on Mars, the same is true of its southern hemisphere
Which three worlds have almost identical densities?
Mercury, Venus, and Earth
Venus' rotation
takes longer than its orbit around the Sun
What is true of Mars?
Iron oxide on the surface is responsible for its reddish color.
) Which of the following layers of the Earth is unique among the terrestrial planets?
) Much of the water on Mars
is thought to be in a layer of permaforst just below the surface
Which statement is true of Venus' surface?
There are two continent sized uplands
The planet _______ which planet has the least variation in temperatures on the surface between day and night.
: The largest volcano yet found in our solar system is on Mars
Uranus and Neptune are often called twin worlds. How do their axial tilts differ?
Uranus Tilt: 98 degrees. Its strange tilt produces extreme seasonal variations, especially at the poles. So at the poles, 42 years of daylight followed by 42 days of night.

Neptune Tilt: 29 degrees, seasons last 40 years
What common gas assumes an uncommon state in the mantles of Jupiter and Saturn?
Liquid metallic hydrogen
. Why do Uranus and Neptune appear bluish?
Because their atmospheres contain large quantities of methane gas, which absorbs light in the red part of the spectrum and reflects back light in the blue part of the spectrum
Why does Saturn radiate even more excess heat than Jupiter?
Helium rain falling inward generates heat as it descends.
The reason the jovian planets lost very little of their original atmosphere is due to their
large mass.
What would Jupiter have needed to be a star?
large mass.
What would Jupiter have needed to be a star?
enough more mass to make the planet hotter
Although it is almost the same size as Jupiter, Saturn's gravity is about 2.5 times less,
Because of Saturn's lower mass and density.
In terms of axial tilt, which of the jovians shows us the largest inclination?
Differential rotation is when a planet's equator and polar regions rotate at different rates
At which planet can the pole remain in darkness for 42 years, then have 42 years of constant daylight?
Jupiter and the other jovian planets are noticeably oblate because of ____________
fluid bodies rapidly spinning
The reason the jovian planets lost very little of their original atmosphere is due to their
Large Gravity = large mass
The mare are really seas of long since hardened _____, a dark volcanic rock

that also makes up the ocean basins of Earth.
At what phase would you expect to find extremely high and low tides?
both new and full moons
) The mare are really seas of long since hardened ________, a dark volcanic rock that also makes up the ocean basins of Earth.
) At what phase would you expect to find extremely high and low tides?
both new and full moons
The Oort Cloud is believed to be
a spherical cloud of cometary nuclei far beyond the Kuiper Belt.
The most distant objects in our solar system are
in the Oort Cloud.
The Kuiper Belt is found where in the solar system?
beyond the orbit of Neptune
Besides Mars, exobiologists find Europa also a good candidate for life.
Io's internal heat is due to tidal interactions with Jupiter and Europa.
Like Jupiter's other icy moons, Europa is covered with craters.
) Due to the tidal stresses, it is likely most of Io is molten, with a relatively thin solid crust.
Ganymede is the largest satellite in the solar system.
The large, dark mare on Ganymede were created by water that erupted from within the moon
) In terms of composition and density, the atmosphere of Titan is closer to our own than any other place we have found in the solar system.
Methane drives the weather of Titan, for there it can be liquid, solid, or gas.
) The retrograde orbit of Triton dooms it to spiral inward toward Neptune, perhaps someday to make a ring system.
) What is thought to cause Io's volcanism?
tidal stresses from both Jupiter and Europa
The surface of Europa is most like the Earth's
Artic Ocean
The largest moon in the solar system, bigger but not as massive as Mercury, is
) Which of these moons are most interesting to exobiologists?
Europa and Titan
Why are the rings of Saturn so bright?
They are made of young, fresh water ice.
What does the Sun look like in an annular eclipse?
The Moon is closer in its orbit to the Earth it is big enough to cover the Sun completely. When its further away, the eclipses are partial.
If the new moon fell on March 2nd, what is the Moon's phase on March 14th ?
What will happen when the full moon is on the ecliptic?
A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, and the Moon fully or partially covers the Sun as viewed from some location on Earth
What is the interval from new moon to first quarter?
One week , 7days
True or false: The difference between solar and sidereal time is due to Earth moving along its orbit in the time it took to rotate once.
When the moon is directly opposite the Sun in the sky, its phase is?
While watching a star, you see it moves 15 degrees across the sky. How long have you been watching it?
How many years is a precession cycle?
What is the name for the 12 constellations our solar system bodies (Sun, planets, moons, etc) move through?
signs of the zodiac
How many constellations do we see in the celestial sphere?
) What is the declination of the south celestial pole?
What is a constellation?
A group of stars forming a pattern that is traditionally named after its apparent form or identified with a mythological figure. Modern...
• A group or cluster of related things.
Are the stars in a constellation close together?
T or F: The sidereal day is determined by the earth's rotation with respect to the stars.
Carbon dioxide dominates the atmospheres of Venus and Mars, but on Earth most of it lies underground as
Carbonate rock.
Contrast the rotation rates of the jovians planets with the terrestrials.
Diameter, Mass,Density, Chemical Composition, Magnetic Field, Number of Natural Satellites (Moons), Rotation Rates, Distance from the Sun.