Sherries, ports, Madeira, and Marsala are fortified wines, meaning that they have had brandy or wine alcohol added to then. The brandy or wine alcohol imparts a unique taste and increases the alcohol content to about 20 percent. Each of the groups of fortified wines has several subgroups with myriad tastes and aromas.
Aromatized wines are fortified and flavored with herbs, roots, flowers, and bark. They are known as asperitifs, which are consumed before meals as digestive stimulants. The better-known brands of aromatized wines are Dubonnet Red, Dubonnet White, vermouth red, vermouth white, Byrrh, Lillet, Punt e Mes, St. Raphael Red, and St. Raphael White.
The combination of food and wine is one of life's great pleasures. We eat every day, so a gourmet will seek out not only exotic foods and vintage wines, but also simple food that is well prepared and accompanied by an unpretentious, yet quality wine.
Traditions have developed a how-to-approach to the marrying of wines and food. White wine is the best served with white meat. Red wine is best served with red meat. The heavier the food, the heavier the wine should be. Champagne can be served throughout the meal. Port and red wine go well with cheese. Dessert wines best complement desserts and fresh fruits that are not highly acidic. When a dish is cooked with wine, it is best served with that wine. Regional food is best complemented by wines of the region. Wines should never accompany salads with vinegar dressings, or curried; the tastes will clash or be overpowering. Sweet wines should be served with foods that are not sweet.
The brewing process begins with water, an important ingredient in the making of beer. The mineral content and purity of the water determine the quality of the final product. Water accounts for 85 to 89 percent of the finished beer. Grain is added in the form of malt, which is barley that has been ground to a course grit. The grain is germinated, producing an enzyme that converts starch into fermentable sugar. The yeast is the fermenting agent. Breweries typically have their own cultured yeasts, which to a large extent determine the type and taste of the beer. Mashing is th term for grinding tha malt and screening out any bits or dirt. The malt then goes through a hopper into a mash tub, which is a large stainless steel or copper container. Here, the water and grained are mixed and heated. The liquid is now called wort and is filtered through a mash filter or lauter tub. It flows into a brewing kettle, where hops are added and the mixture is boiled for several hours. After the brewing operation, the hop wort is filtered through the hop seperator and into the fermenting vat where pure-culture yeast is added for fermentation.
A Stout is a dark ale with a sweet, strong, malt flavor. Pilsner means that the beer is made in the style of the famous beer in Pilsen, Czech Republic. It is not really a beer.
Among the better-known spirits is whiskey, which is a genetic name for the spirit first distilled in Scotland and Ireland centeries ago. Whiskey is made from a fermented mash of grain to which malt, in the form of barley is added. Spirits naturally are white in color, but raw whiskey is stored in oak barrels that have been charred. The whiskey is stored for a period of time, up to maximum of twelve to fifteen years. Four distinct whiskey types have gained worldwide acknowledgement throughout the centuries.
Scotch whiskey has been distilled in Scotland for centuries and has been a distinctive part of the Scot's way of life. From its origin in the remote and romantic Highland glens, Scotch whiskey has become popular as an international drink, its flavor appreciated throughout the world. Scotch became popular in the United States during the time of Prohibition when it was smuggled into the country from Canada. It is produced like other whiskies, except that the malt is dried in special kilns that give it a smoky flavor. To be legally called Scotch whiskey, the spirit must conform to the standards of the Scotch Whiskey Act. Some of the better-known quality-blended Scotch whiskies are Chivas Regal and Johnie Walker Black, Gold, and Blue Labels.
Irish whiskey is produced from malted barley, corn, rye, and other grains. The malt is not dried like it is in the production of Scotch whiskey, which gives Irish whiskey a milder character, yet an excellent flavor. Two well-known Irish whiskies are Old Bushmill's Black Bush and Jameson's 12 Year Old Reserve.
Bourbon has a peculiar history. In colonial times in New England, rum was the most popular distilled spirit. Settlers of Scottish and Irish background predominated. They were mostly grain farmers, producing whiskey for barter. When George Washingtion levied a tax on this whiskey, the farmers moved south and continued their whiskey production. However, the rye crop failed, so they decided to mix the corn particularly abundant in Kentucky with the remaining rye. Bourbon whiskey is produced mainly from corn; other grains are also used, but they are of secondary importance. The distillation processes are similar to those of other types of whiskey. Charred barrels give bourbon its distinctive taste. Barrels can only be used once in the United States to age liquor. Aging, therefore, occurs in new barrels after each distillation process. Bourbon may be aged up to six years as it improves its mellowness. The better-known bourbon whiskies are Jack Daniels, Maker's Mark, and George Dickel.
Canadian whiskey is produced mainly from corn. It is characterized by a delicate flavor that pleases the palate. Canadian whiskey must be at least four years old before it can be bottled and marketed. It is distilled at 70 to 90 percent alcohol by volume. Among the better-known Canadian whiskies are Seagram's and Canadian Club.
Gin, rum, Vodka, and tequila are the most common of the spirits that are called white spirits. Gin is a neutral spirit made from juniper berries. Gin was often made in the bathtub in the morning and sold in hole-in-the-wall dram shops all over London at night. Obviously, the quality left a lot to be desired, but the poor drank it to the point of national disaster. Gin also was widely produced in the United States during the Prohibition. In fact, the habit of mixing something else with it led to the creation of the cocktail. Gin became the foundation of many cocktails.
Tequila is distilled from the Agave Tequilas. Official Mexican regulations require that tequila be made in the area around the town of Tequila because the solid contains volcanic ash. Tequila may be white, silver, or golden in color. The white is shipped unaged, silver is aged up to three years, and golden is aged in oak from two to four years. Tequila is mainly used in the popular margarita cocktail or in the tequila sunrise.
Vodka can be made from many sources, including barley, corn, wheat, rye, or potatoes. Because it lacks color, odor, and flavor, vodka generally is combined with juices or other mixers whose flavors predominate. To offer consumers more choices, Vodka producers hace popularized flavored vodkas with lemon, pepper, vanilla, raspberry, peach, pear, and mango. Brand names of vodka producers are Absolut from Sweden, Stolich from Russia, Grey Goose from France, Tru Organic from the United States, and Van Gogh from the Netherlands.
Brandy is distilled from wine in a fashion similar to that o fother spirits. American brandy comes primarily from California, where it is made in column stills and aged in white-oak barrels for at least two years. The best-known American brandies are made by the Christian Brothers and Ernest and Julio Gallo. Their brandies are smooth and fruity with a touch of sweetness. The best brandies are served after dinner, and ordinary brandies are used in the well for mixed drinks.
Nonalcoholic beverages are increasing in popularity. In the 1990s and 2000s, a radical shift has occured from the free-love 1960s and the singles bars of the 1970s and early 1980s. People are more cautious about the consumption of alcohol. Lifestyles have become healthier, and organizations such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving have raised the social conscience about responsible alcohol consumption. In recent years, several new beverages have been added to the nonalcoholic beverage list. From Goji juice to passion fruit green tea, the nonalcoholic beverage world has been innovative in creating flavored teas and coffees and an ever increasing variety of juices to satisfy all out tastes.
Guinness, Anheuser-Busch, and Miller, along with many other brewers, have developed beer products that have the same appearance as regular beer but that have a lower calorie content and approximately 95 to 99 percent of the alcohal removed, either after processing or after fermentation. The taste is different from regular beer.
Coffee is the drink of the present. People who used to frequent bars are more often patronizing coffeehouses. Coffee first came from Ethipia and Mocha, which is in the Yemen Republic. In the Middle ages, coffee found its way to Europe via Turkey, but not without some objections. In Italy, priests appealed to Pope Clement VIII to have the use of coffee forbidden among Christians. In 1637, the first European coffeehouse opened in England; within thirty years coffeehouses had replaced taverns as the island's social, commercial, and political melting pots. Coffeehouses were also popular in Europe. In Paris, Cafe Procope, which opened in 1689 and still operated today, has been the meeting place of many famous artists and philosophers, including Rousseau and Voltaire.
The Dutch introduced coffee to the United States during the colonial period. Coffeehouses soon became the haunts of the revolutionary activists plotting against King George of England and the high tea tax. John Adams and Paul Revere helped established coffee as the traditional democratic drink of Americans.
Tea is a beverage made by steeping in boiling water the leaves of the tea plant, an evergreen shrub ,or small tree, native to Asia. Tea is consumed as either a hot or cold beverage by half of the world's population, yet it is second to coffee in commercial importance because most of the world's tea crop is consumed in the tea-growing regions. Tea leaves contain 1 to 3 percent caffeine. Tea leaves have more than twice the caffeine of a cup of coffee because one pound of tea leaves makes 250 to 300 cups of tea, whereas one pound beans makes only 40 cups of coffee. Oolong and Orange pekoe are the types of tea in China. Darjeeling, Assams, and Dooars are the types of teas that originated in India. Java and Sumatra are the types of tea that originated in Indonesia.
Coco-Cola and Pepsi have long dominated the carbonated soft drinks market. In the early 1970s, Diet Coke and Diet Pepsi were introduced and quickly gained popularity. The diet colas command about a 10-percent market share. Caffeine-free colas offer an alternative, but they have not, as of yet, become as popular as diet colas.
Energy drinks are beverages that are designed to give the consumer a burst of energy by using a combination of methylaxanthines, B vitamins, and exotic herbal ingredients. Energy drinks commonly include caffeine, guarana, taurine, various forms og ginseng, maltodextin, inositol, carnitine, creatine, and ginkgo bilboa. Some contain high levels of sugar, while most brands also offer an artificially sweetened version. Red Bull is an example of a popular energy drink that originated in Thailand. It was adapted to Australian tastes and in only a few years has become popular around the world. The claims are that Red Bull vitalizes the body and mind by supplying tired minds and exhausted bodies with vital substances that have been lost, while reducing harmful substances. Red Bull has a large market share in more than 100 countries.
Juices and Smart drinks
Popular juice flavors include orange, cranberry, grapefruit, mango, papaya, and apple. Nonalcoholic versions of popular cocktails made with juices have been popular for years and are known as virgin cocktails. juice bars have established themselves as places for quick, healthy drinks. Lately, "smart drinks" that are supposed to boost energy and improve concentration have become popular. The smart drinks are made up of a blend of juices, herbs, amino acids, caffeine, and sugar and are sold under names such as Energy Plasma Blast and IQ Booster. Other drinks have jumped on the healthy drink Bandwagon, playing on the consumer's desire to drink something refreshing, light, and healthful, often something healthier than sugar-filled sodas. These drinks usually just add the flavor of the fruit and rarely have any nutritional value. Some drinks are created by mixing different fruit flavors to arrive at new exotic flavors such as Passion-Kiwi-Strawberry and Mango-Banana Delight.
Sport enthusiasts also find drinks that professional athletes use and advertise available in stores. These beverages are intended to help the body regain the vital fluids and minerals that are lost during heavy physical exertion.
Bottled water was popular in Europe years ago when it was not safe to drink tap water. In North America, the increased popularity of bottled water has coincided with the trend toward healthier lifestyles. Perrier lost market share a few years ago when an employee tampered with the product. Now the market leader is Evian. Domestic bottled water is as good as imported and is now available in various flavors that offer the consumer a greater selection. Bottled waters are available as sparkling, mineral, and spring waters. Bottled water is a refreshing, clean-tasting, low-calorie that will likely inrease in popularity as a beverage on its own or to accompany another beverage such as wine or whiskey.
Coffee is the drink of the present. People who used to frequent bars are more often patronizing coffeehouses. Coffee first came from Ethiopia and Mocha, which is in the Yemen Republic. In the Middle ages, coffee found its way to Europe via Turkey, but not without some objections. In Italy, priests appealed to Pope Clement VIII to have the use of coffee forbidden among Christians. In 1637, the first European coffeehouse opened in England; within thirty years coffeehouses had replaced taverns as the island's social, commercial, andpolitical melting pots. Cofeehouses were also popular in Europe. In Paris, Cafe Procope, which opened in 1689 and still operated today, has been the meeting place of many famous artists and philosophers, including Rousseau and Voltaire.
The Dutch introduced coffee to the United States during the colonial period. Coffeehouses soon became the haunts of the revolutionary activists plotting against King George of England and the high tea tax. John Adams and Paul Revere helped established coffee as the traditional democratic drink of Americans. Brazil produces more than 30 percent of the world's cofee, most of which goes into canned and instant cofee. Coffee connoissuers recommend beans by name, such as arabica and robusta beans. In Indonesia, coffee is named for the island on which it grows; the best is from Java and is rich and spicy with a full-bodied flavor.
Coffee houses originally were created based on the model of Italian bars, which reflected the deeply rooted espresso tradition in Italy. The winning concept of Italian bars lies in the ambiance they create, which is suitable for onversation of a personal, social, and business nature. Students as well as business people find coffee houses a place to relax, discuss, socialize, and study. The success of coffeehouses is reflected in the establishment of chains such as Starbucks, as well as family-owned, independent shops. Wireless cafes are a recent trend in the coffeehouse sector. Wireless cafes offer the use of computers, with internet capability, for about $6 per hour. Guests can enjoy coffee, snacks, or even a meal while online.
14th EditionBruce Edward Bursten, Catherine J. Murphy, H. Eugene Lemay, Matthew E. Stoltzfus, Patrick Woodward, Theodore Brown Matta, Staley, Waterman, Wilbraham McLaughlin, Thompson, Zike