What is Life? A Guide to Biology: Chapter 9

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Terms in this set (...)

Altruistic behaviors
Behaviors that come to a cost to the individual performing them while benefiting a recipient
Behavior
Actions performed by an organisms in response to its environment or the actions of something else
Communication
An action or signal of one organism that alters the behavior of another organism. There are four types.
Direct fitness
An individual's total reproductive output
Female
In sexually reproducing organisms, a member of the sex that produces the larger gamete
Fixed action pattern
An innate sequence of behaviors, triggered under certain conditions, that requires no learning, does not vary, and once begun returns to completion; an example is egg-retrieval in geese
Group selection
Group selection describes the evolution of a trait that is beneficial for the species or population while decreasing the fitness of the individual exhibiting the trait and because it decreases reproductive success it rarely occurs.
Honest signal
A signal that cannot be faked and that is given to indicate information about oneself
Inclusive fitness
= direct fitness + indirect fitness
Indirect fitness
The reproductive output brought about by altruistic behaviors toward close kin
Innate behavior
A behavior that is influenced by genes and does not depend on learning
Instinct
Behaviors that do not require environmental input for their development. Instincts are present in all individuals in a population and do not vary much from one individual to another or over an individual's life span; also known as innate behavior
Kin selection
Preferential helping of genetic relatives, which results in the greater likelihood that genes held in common will survive.
Language
A type of communication in which arbitrary symbols represent concepts and grammar and a system of rules dictates who the symbols can be manipulated to communicate and express ideas.
Learning
The alteration and modification of behavior over time in response to experience.
Male
In sexually reproducing organisms, a member of the sex that produces the smaller gamete
Mate guarding
behavior by an individual that reduces the oppurtunity for that individuals mate to interact with other potential mates (spider breaking off penis)
Mating system
The pattern of mating behavior in a species, ranging from polyandry to monogamy to polygyny; mating systems are influenced by the relative amounts of parental investment by males and females
Monogamy
A mating pattern in which one male and one female form an enduring reproductive partnership
Nuptial gift
A food item or other item presented to a potential mate as part of courtship
Pair bond
A stable relationship between animals of opposite sex that ensures cooperative behavior in mating and rearing the young.
Paternity uncertainty
A male cannot be completely sure that an offspring is his
Pheromone (Chemical Communication)
Chemical signals released by an animal that communicate information and affect the behavior of other animals of the same species.
Polyandry
A polygamous mating system involving one female and many males.
Polygamy
Any mating system in which a member of one sex mates with several members of the opposite sex
Polygyny
a polygamous mating system involving one male and many females
Prepared learning
Behaviors that are learned easily by individuals in a species
Reciprocal altruism
Behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
Reproductive investment
Energy and material expended by an individual in the growth, feeding, and care of offspring
Sexual dimorphism
Sexes of a species differ in size or appearance
Sign stimulus
An external signal that triggers the innate behavior called a fixed action pattern
Total reproductive output
The lifetime number of offspring produced by and individual
Waggle dance
Behavior of scout honeybees that indicates, by the angle of the body relative to the sun and by physical maneuvers of various duration, the direction to a distant source of food
Auditory communication
Sounds that trigger behavioral responses
Visual Communication
Organisms can convey information such as threat or receptivity with visual displays
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