59 terms

Chp 41-43 Sensory Unit 14 Med Surg

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Sclera
White of the eye that protects structures, connects to cornea, iris, and pupil
Conjunctiva
Transparent mucous membrane that extend from lid margins and meet cornea
Canthus
where the upper & lower eyelids meed
Down syndrome
eye slants upward and outward
Epicanthial fold
covers canthus and indicates Asian decent
Eyelids
protect against foreign bodies/adjust amount of light that enters eye.
Eyelids spread tears over surface of eye- lubrication
Eyelashes
trap debris
Eye exams
1 exam in 20s, 2 exams in 30s, and every two years after 40 due to age related changes-cataracts
Optemetrist
doctor of optometry, test vision, examine eyes, prescribe corrective lenses/contacts, in some states may treat limited eye diseases, including Rx eye meds (can in Missouri)- NO SURGERY OR LASER TX.
Opthalmologist
MD/DO - medical & surgical tx of eye diseases, needs to go if has hx of htn, or eye disease
Conjunctivitis
inflammation of the conjunctiva/clear film of the eye. SxS redness, irritation
Nystagmus
oscillating eye movements
Ptosis
drooping of eyelids
Visual acuity
clearness of vision
Enucleation
Removal of the eye, Post op teaching: monitor of hemorrhage. Remove every 4-6 weeks to clean. Each prosthesis last 5-6 years.
Hordeolum
inflammation of the oil glands in the eye. Most commonly caused by staph aureus
Tx: warm moist compress, topical antibiotic. DO NOT TOUCH
Glaucoma
"tunnel vision", sxs: slow onset, blurry/tunnel vision, eye discomfort, tx: NO CURE, meds, surgery, eye gtts, avoid excessive crying, avoid straining eyes such as going out in sunlight.
Myopia
nearsightedness
Photophobia
sensitivity to light
Blindness
20/400 to no light perception
Hyperopia
Farsightedness, must squint to see near objects
Presbyopia
farsightedness caused by loss of elasticity- associated with aging- difficulty seeing close up
Macular degeneration
Leading cause of visual disturbances with those >60. Sxs slow progression, blurry vision, unable to see middle of, "target" tx: meds, surgery, diet, vitamins, Occuvite, risk factors: caucasian, smoking, family hx.
Otitis externa
Infection of outer ear, "swimmer's ear", tx: ear drops- antibacterial, Risk factors: buildup of cerumen, hearing aids, trauma from cerumen removal, eczema, swimming
Otitis media
Infection of middle ear. tx: oral antibiotics- Analgesic ear gtt, associated with bacteria. if left untreated can travel to the brain
Otoscope
for the examination of the ear
Conductive hearing loss
SXS: Interference in transmission of sound by blockage of wax or other obstruction the bones cannot vibrate. TX: removal of obstruction per dr. order maybe use drops.
Sensorineural hearing loss
damage to inner ear- conditions that affect sensory hair cells or nerves, Atherosclerosis, tumors, infection, drug toxicity, Is irreversible ototoxic meds Tx: not treatable no cure
Labyrinthitis
Inflammation of the inner ear
Vertigo
dizzinness
Pinna
fleshy external projection of the outer ear
Otalgia
inflammation/pain of the ear
Snellen chart
measures visual acuity
Legally blind
20/200 or less (with corrective lenses)
Nearpoint/near vision
pocket vision card/screener approx 14-16 inches away. Client may only miss 1-2 letters to "pass" that line. Perform each eye separately.
Color blindness
dx: Ishahara test. Cause: can be inherited or from chemical or physical injury. Most common form is red-green color blindness
Ophthalmoscopy
examination with ophthalmoscope- view retina, lens, retinal blood vesels & optic disc
Outer ear anatomy
Lobe,Pinna, External canal, Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
Middle ear anatomy
Malleus,Incus, stapes.
Infections in this area can extend into the brain and cause an abscess.
Inner ear, "Labrynth" anatomy
Semicircular canals, cochlea
Ear exams
every decade through age 50 & every 3 yrs thereafter
Otolaryngologists
ENT physicians
Drugs that cause ototoxicity
furosemide, salicylates, antibiotics (vancomycin)
Ear examination/administration of ear drops
Adults- pull ear up and back. Children- pull ear down & back
Romberg test
used to evaluate a a patient's balance
Blehpharitis
Inflammation of the eyelid margins. SxS: Greasy scales/"dandruff" of eyelid/eyelashes, Lid margins red & inflamed,Patchy flakes on eyelashes. Eyelashes may be missing., Possible purulent drainage TX: topical antibiotic ointment, cleanse eyelids with baby shampoo daily.
Cataracts
Lens of eye becomes opaque. One or both eyes affected. Common in aging process. SxS: halo around lights, difficulty reading, visual disturbances Tx: surgery, Post op: protective eye shield, NO strenuous activity
Retinal Detachment
Sensory layer tears and looses blood flow. Caused by stretching or degenerative changes Sxs: gaps in vision field or blind spots, flashes of light, seeing spots, "cobwebs". NOT PAINFUL. Tx: surgery, sometimes is unrepairable. Pt is on bedrest, on side with affected eye dependent position, patch eye, eye gtts.
Cerumen buildup tx
Mineral oil or Debrox OTC for 2-3 days prior to warm water irrigation (NOT COLD NOT HOT)
Ear gttps administration
prior to instillation- Warm ear drops to room temp- rub between hands or place bottle in warm water. (cold drops are painful, may cause dizziness & nausea), lay on opposite side of affected ear.
Otitic meds
soften wax, relieve pain & tx infection
Complications of Otitis media
mastoiditis, hearing loss, perforation of eardrum
Normal Tympanic Membrane
Perforated eardrum
Proper care of hearing aid
Perform listening checks: Listen to the hearing aid every day. Check batteries: Batteries should last about 1 or 2 weeks. Clean the hearing aids regularly with a soft, dry cloth. Minimize moisture in the hearing aids.
Ménière's disease
An inner ear disorder that causes episodes of vertigo (spinning). Tx: Can't be cured, Smoking, infections, or a high-salt diet may worsen the disease. Sxs: pain, ear pressure, tinnitus, motion sickness. Common is adults >60
Difference between dB & Hz
Hertz is an absolute measurement and measures the frequency/pitch of the wave, Decibel measures the intensity level/volume of the wave.
Normal hearing acuity
20 decibels
Otosclerosis
a hereditary disorder causing progressive deafness due to overgrowth of bone in the middle and inner ear. Tx: hearing aids and surgery.

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