White of the eye that protects structures, connects to cornea, iris, and pupil
Transparent mucous membrane that extend from lid margins and meet cornea
where the upper & lower eyelids meed
eye slants upward and outward
covers canthus and indicates Asian decent
protect against foreign bodies/adjust amount of light that enters eye. Eyelids spread tears over surface of eye- lubrication
1 exam in 20s, 2 exams in 30s, and every two years after 40 due to age related changes-cataracts
doctor of optometry, test vision, examine eyes, prescribe corrective lenses/contacts, in some states may treat limited eye diseases, including Rx eye meds (can in Missouri)- NO SURGERY OR LASER TX.
MD/DO - medical & surgical tx of eye diseases, needs to go if has hx of htn, or eye disease
inflammation of the conjunctiva/clear film of the eye. SxS redness, irritation
oscillating eye movements
drooping of eyelids
clearness of vision
Removal of the eye, Post op teaching: monitor of hemorrhage. Remove every 4-6 weeks to clean. Each prosthesis last 5-6 years.
inflammation of the oil glands in the eye. Most commonly caused by staph aureus Tx: warm moist compress, topical antibiotic. DO NOT TOUCH
"tunnel vision", sxs: slow onset, blurry/tunnel vision, eye discomfort, tx: NO CURE, meds, surgery, eye gtts, avoid excessive crying, avoid straining eyes such as going out in sunlight.
sensitivity to light
20/400 to no light perception
Farsightedness, must squint to see near objects
farsightedness caused by loss of elasticity- associated with aging- difficulty seeing close up
Leading cause of visual disturbances with those >60. Sxs slow progression, blurry vision, unable to see middle of, "target" tx: meds, surgery, diet, vitamins, Occuvite, risk factors: caucasian, smoking, family hx.
Infection of outer ear, "swimmer's ear", tx: ear drops- antibacterial, Risk factors: buildup of cerumen, hearing aids, trauma from cerumen removal, eczema, swimming
Infection of middle ear. tx: oral antibiotics- Analgesic ear gtt, associated with bacteria. if left untreated can travel to the brain
for the examination of the ear
Conductive hearing loss
SXS: Interference in transmission of sound by blockage of wax or other obstruction the bones cannot vibrate. TX: removal of obstruction per dr. order maybe use drops.
Sensorineural hearing loss
damage to inner ear- conditions that affect sensory hair cells or nerves, Atherosclerosis, tumors, infection, drug toxicity, Is irreversible ototoxic meds Tx: not treatable no cure
Inflammation of the inner ear
fleshy external projection of the outer ear
inflammation/pain of the ear
measures visual acuity
20/200 or less (with corrective lenses)
pocket vision card/screener approx 14-16 inches away. Client may only miss 1-2 letters to "pass" that line. Perform each eye separately.
dx: Ishahara test. Cause: can be inherited or from chemical or physical injury. Most common form is red-green color blindness
Malleus,Incus, stapes. Infections in this area can extend into the brain and cause an abscess.
Inner ear, "Labrynth" anatomy
Semicircular canals, cochlea
every decade through age 50 & every 3 yrs thereafter
Drugs that cause ototoxicity
furosemide, salicylates, antibiotics (vancomycin)
Ear examination/administration of ear drops
Adults- pull ear up and back. Children- pull ear down & back
used to evaluate a a patient's balance
Inflammation of the eyelid margins. SxS: Greasy scales/"dandruff" of eyelid/eyelashes, Lid margins red & inflamed,Patchy flakes on eyelashes. Eyelashes may be missing., Possible purulent drainage TX: topical antibiotic ointment, cleanse eyelids with baby shampoo daily.
Lens of eye becomes opaque. One or both eyes affected. Common in aging process. SxS: halo around lights, difficulty reading, visual disturbances Tx: surgery, Post op: protective eye shield, NO strenuous activity
Sensory layer tears and looses blood flow. Caused by stretching or degenerative changes Sxs: gaps in vision field or blind spots, flashes of light, seeing spots, "cobwebs". NOT PAINFUL. Tx: surgery, sometimes is unrepairable. Pt is on bedrest, on side with affected eye dependent position, patch eye, eye gtts.
Cerumen buildup tx
Mineral oil or Debrox OTC for 2-3 days prior to warm water irrigation (NOT COLD NOT HOT)
Ear gttps administration
prior to instillation- Warm ear drops to room temp- rub between hands or place bottle in warm water. (cold drops are painful, may cause dizziness & nausea), lay on opposite side of affected ear.
soften wax, relieve pain & tx infection
Complications of Otitis media
mastoiditis, hearing loss, perforation of eardrum
Normal Tympanic Membrane
Proper care of hearing aid
Perform listening checks: Listen to the hearing aid every day. Check batteries: Batteries should last about 1 or 2 weeks. Clean the hearing aids regularly with a soft, dry cloth. Minimize moisture in the hearing aids.
An inner ear disorder that causes episodes of vertigo (spinning). Tx: Can't be cured, Smoking, infections, or a high-salt diet may worsen the disease. Sxs: pain, ear pressure, tinnitus, motion sickness. Common is adults >60
Difference between dB & Hz
Hertz is an absolute measurement and measures the frequency/pitch of the wave, Decibel measures the intensity level/volume of the wave.
Normal hearing acuity
a hereditary disorder causing progressive deafness due to overgrowth of bone in the middle and inner ear. Tx: hearing aids and surgery.