100 terms

Recip Engine Textbook

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Rotary, Static
Radial engines have appeared in two forms: the ____-radial and the ____-radial.
Horizontally Opposed
The _____ type engine has two banks of cylinders directly opposite each other with a crankshaft in the middle.
Silk Thread
Many crankcase halves are sealed using a thin coat of non-hardening gasket compound and a _____.
Aluminum
Horizontally opposed engine crankcases are usually cast from ____ alloy.
Shaft
The three main parts of a crank____ are the :
Journal,
Crankpin,
Crankshaft.
Nitriding
The outer surface of the crankpins and journals are hardened by _____.
Static
A crankshaft is checked for ____ balance by placing it on knife edges and observing any tendency to rotate.
Dynamic Dampers
To reduce vibration to a minimum during engine operation ______ are incorporated on the crankshaft.
Plain, Ball, Roller
What are the types of bearings in general use?
Plain
The crankshaft usually rotates in ____ bearings.
Connecting Rods
The _____ is the link which transmits forces between the piston and the crankshaft.
Crank Pin
The connecting rod attaches to the ____ of the crankshaft.
Plain, Fork & Blade, Master & Articulated
What are the types of connecting rod assemblies?
Plain-Type
The ____ connecting rod is used on horizontally opposed engines.
Master & Articulated
The _____ rod assembly is used in radial engines.
Knuckle
The ____ pins connect the articulating rods to the master rod.
Aluminum Alloy
Most aircraft pistons are machined from _____ forgings.
Cast Iron
Most piston rings are made of high grade ____.
Compression
The top rings installed on an aircraft piston are called the _____ rings.
Oil Control
The piston ring below the compression rings is called the ____ ring
Oil Scraper
The piston ring at the bottom of the piston skirt is called the ______ ring.
Full-Floating
The piston pins used in modern aircraft engines are the _____ type.
Wrist
Another name for a piston pin is a ____ pin.
Thickness
Oil control rings regulate the ____ of the oil film on the cylinder wall.
Head, Barrel
The cylinder assembly is composed of two major parts, the cylinder ____ and _____.
Choke
A ____ bore cylinder is one where the bore is ground so that the diameter at the top portion of the barrel is slightly smaller than the diameter of the main part of the barrel.
Chrome Plating, Nitriding
Commonly used methods used to harden cylinder walls are ____.
Orange
Cylinders which have been chrome plated are identified by _____ paint.
Blue
Cylinders which have been nitrided are identified by ____ paint.
Nitrided
_____ cylinders are very susceptible to rust and must be kept covered with a preservative oil.
Aluminumm Alloy
Cylinder heads of air-cooled engines are generally made of _____.
Cooling Fins
Heat is transferred away from the cylinder head through ____ cast into the head.
Exhaust
There is a greater depth and are of cooling fins on the ____ side of an air-cooled cylinder head.
Front
The propeller shaft end of an aircraft engine is always the ___ end, regardless of how it is mounted in the aircraft.
Rear
When referring to the right or left side of the engine, always assume you are viewing it from the ____.
Poppet-Valves
The heads of ____ come in four shapes including:
Mushroom
Tulip
Semi-Tulip
Flat
Sodium
Hollow exhaust valves may be partially filled with ___ to aid in their cooling.
Lift
Valve ___ is the distance that valve is lifted off its seat.
Duration
Valve ____ is the length of time that valve is open.
Camshaft
The valve mechanism of a horizontally opposed engine is operated by a _____.
1/2
The camshaft on a horizontally opposed engine rotates at ____ the crankshaft speed.
Solid, Hydraulic
The types of valve lifters used in aircraft engines include _____.
Push Rods
The ____ transmit the movement of the cam follower to the rocker arm.
Rocker Arm
One end of the ____ bears against the push rod and the other against the valve stem.
Rings
The valve mechanism of a radial engine is operated by one or more cam ____.
1/8
A four lobe cam ring on a nine cylinder engine will turn at ___ the crankshaft speed.
Zero Lash
Hydraulic valve lifters are also known as ____ lifters.
Zero
The running valve clearance of hydraulic lifters is _____.
The Same
The direction of rotation between a propeller shaft and the crankshaft in an engine using a planetary gear reduction system is ____.
Flange
___-type propeller shafts are used on most modern horizontally opposed aircraft engines.
Heat, Mechanical
All heat engines convert ____ energy into ____ energy.
Internal, External
Basic types of heat engines are ____ and ___ combustion.
Exhaust Stroke, Intake
Valve overlap occurs at the end of the ____ and the beginning of the ____ stroke.
Work
The product of Force X Distance is known as ____.
Power
The rate of doing work is known as _____.
33000, 550
One horsepower is equal to ____ foot-pounds of work done in one minute, or ____ foot-pounds of work done in one second.
Brake
The horsepower delivered to the propeller shaft of an aircraft engine is called ____ horsepower.
Friction
The power required to rotate the engine and to compress the air is called ____ horsepower.
Indicated
Brake horsepower + friction horsepower = ____ horsepower.
6
The nominal weight of aviation gasoline is ____ pounds per gallon.
20 000
The nominal heat energy content of one pound of aviation gasoline is ____ BTU.
778
One BTU of heat energy will perform ____ foot-pounds of work.
Cannot
A normally aspirated aircraft engine typically ____ attain a volumetric efficiency of 100%.
Decreases
As the temperature of the air increases, the density ____.
Mechanical
The ratio of brake horsepower to indicated horsepower is the ____ efficiency of the engine.
Detonation
____ is the spontaneous combustion of the unburned charge ahead of the flame fronts after the ignition of the fuel/air charge in a reciprocating engine.
Preignition
____ occurs when the fuel/air mixture ignites before the spark jumps across the terminals of the spark plug.
Late
A serious loss of power and damage to exhaust valves in an aircraft engine can be cause by ____ ignition timings.
The Speed of Sound
In order to efficiently produce thrust, the tip speed of a propeller blade must not exceed ____.
RPM, Manifold Pressure
The two variables used by a pilot to control the amount of power an engine is producing are engine cylinder pressure, indicated as ____ and _____ respectively.
30
A typical reciprocating aircraft engine converts only about ____% of the heat energy released into useful work.
Viscosity
The resistance of an oil to flow is known as its _____.
Low
Oil that flows freely has a ____ viscosity
High
The oil used in reciprocating engines has a relatively ____ viscosity.
Viscosity Index
The measure of the change in viscosity of oil with a given change in temperature is known as the _____.
High Viscosity Index
An engine lubricating oil whose viscosity changes very little for a given change in temperature has a _____.
Flash
The point at which a liquid will begin to give off ignitable vapors is known as the ____ point.
40
Aviation 80 engine oil has the same viscosity as SAE ____.
New/Overhauled engines, Older Engines.
The use of straight mineral oil in aircraft reciprocating engines is associated with what conditions?
Are Not
The lubricating properties of straight mineral oil ____ as good those of ashless dispersant oil.
Multi
Synthetic lubricating oils are ____ viscosity oils.
Flush, Refill
If incompatible oil has been added to a turbine engine, it is often necessary to ___ and ___ the oil system before refilling with the proper oil.
Do not
Turbine engine oils ___ use a standard identification system.
Dry, Wet
Types of lubricating systems for reciprocating aircraft engines are ___ and ___ sump.
Pressure, Splash, Combination
The lubrication is distributed to the parts of a reciprocating engine by these methods _____.
Wet-Sump
The main disadvantage if a ____ engine are:
Oil supply limited by sump capacity
Cooling is more difficult
Oil temp. higher.
Oil, Tank Capacity
What markings must be on the oil filler cap?
Propeller Feathering
Oil tanks used on engines equipped with Hydromatic propellers will feed the pressure pump from a standpipe, leaving a reserve of oil for _____.
Constant
A gear-type oil pump is a ____ displacement pump.
Do
Constant-displacement oil pumps ____ require a relief valve to control their output pressure.
Full-Flow, Bypass
Types of oil filter systems are ____.
Bypass
In the ____ filter system, only a portion of the oil is filtered each time it circulates.
Semi-Depth
The most popular filter in common use for general aviation aircraft is the disposable ____ filter.
Edge
The CUNO filter is an ____ filtration type oil filter.
Flow Control
The _____ valve determines which of the two possible paths the oil will take through a cooler.
Around
When the oil is cold, it flow ___ the core of the oil cooler.
Oil Dilution
____ is a system installed on some reciprocating engines to aid in cold weather starting by introducing fuel into the oil system prior to shutdown.
Outlet
Oil pressure is measured at the ____ of the engine driven oil pump.
Engine Overhaul
Oil coolers are normally removed and thoroughly cleaned and inspected at _____.
Clockwise
The oil pressure on engines using an adjustable oil pressure relief may be increased by turning the adjustment screw _____.