137 terms

IR Quiz #5 Multiple Choice

STUDY
PLAY
national leaders can expect certain behaviors from their international counterparts. these are known as
international norms
which of the following is false with respect to international norms
they are effective only on rare occasions
how frequently has the veto by the Security Council members been used since the mid-1990s
about once a year
the IGOs that have been more successful are the ones that are _____ in scope with _____ purposes
regional, specific
all of the following are regional IGOs except
United Nations
NGOs include organizations such as
Amnesty International and the International Olympic Committee
what is the impact of state soverignty on the United Nations
it creates a need for the UN because no central world government coordinates the actions of states and it limits the power of the UN because states do not like to delegate power to it (A and C)
which of the following is NOT a principle stated in the UN Charter
states should take economic and social disputes to the International Court of Justice for resolution
the functions of the United Nations include
providing a forum in which states can settle disputes without the use of force, promoting economic and social development in the global South, providing a coordinating system for information and planning by international agencies and programs, providing a symbol of international order (all of the above)
the UN standby High Readiness Brigade
is headquartered in Denmark
the body of the United Nations that has the primary responsibility for international peace and security is the
Security Council
which of the following is NOT a permanent member of the UN Security Council
Japan
What can the permanent members of the UN Security Council do that nonpermenant members cannot
veto resolutions
with respect to changes in the structure of the UN Security Council, which of the following is false
Brazil developed a plan that would give permanent seats with veto power to at least six additional countries
the UN's peacekeeping forces
are assembled by the secretary-general each time a mission is deemed necessary
the UN peacekeeping mission in _______ took over actual control of the government after a long civil war until elections could be held to choose a new government
Cambodia
with respect to UN peacekeeping
soldiers are typically sent to a country only when cease-fire has been arranged
the secretary-general of the United Nations is nominated by the ____ and approved by the _____
Security Council, General Assembly
which of the following is NOT a purpose of the UN Secretariat
the represent their respective member states at the UN
all UN members are represented in which institution
General Assembly
which of the following is NOT a function of the UN General Assembly
passing binding resolutions
UN programs
are funded partly by the General Assembly and partly by contributions raised directly by the program
autonomous agencies affiliated with the UN but not under its control include
the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the UN Educational, Scientfici, and Cultural Organizations
how does internatinonal law differ from national laws
it derives from tradition and international agreements rather than legislative actions and enforcement depends on reciprocity and collective actions rather than the power of central authority (A and B)
which of the following is NOT a source of international law
international constitutions
reprisals are
actions that would have been illegal under international law but which may be legal if taken in response to the illegal actions of another state
parties to cases before the world court include
only states
what is the great weakness of the World Court
states have not agreed in a comprehensive way to obey its decisions
which of the following is NOT an advantage of having international cases heard in a national court
the authoirty of the national courts extends beyond the state's borders
if the US were to ask Great Britain to arrest a suspect on British territory and hand him or her over for trial, this is known as
extradition
_____ is when diplomats are accredited to each other's governments and enjoy certian rights and protections as foregin diplomats in the host country
diplomatic recognition
which of the following is the principle that diplomats are beyond the jurisdiction of the host country's national courts
diplomatic immunity
according to laws of war
effort needs to be made to limit warfare to the combatants and to protect civilians when possible, prisoners of war may not be killed, mistreated, or forced to disclose information beyond their name, rank, and serial number, armed forces must respect the nuetrality of the Red Cross in its support of civilians and POWs during war, participants can be held accountable for war crimes they commit (all of the above)
which of the following undermines the laws of warfare
the increase in irregular and "low-intensity" wars fought by guerrillas and death squads
just-war doctorine
allows the repelling of an attack and punishment of the aggressor and allows only the victim of aggression to respond (A and C)
a just war
can be waged only in response to aggression
most states voluntarily observe international law most times because
states' interests are served by the mainteance of an orderly and predictable international environment
the International Court of Justice
is most effective in arbitrating issues of secondary importance between countries with basically friendly relations
how is the power of the UN Security Council limited
its decisions depend entirely on the interests of its members and member states try to evade or soften the effect of Security Council resolutions (A and C)
what has the United Nations done to provide longer-term support to countries after peacekeeping missions end
created a Peacebuilding Commission to coordinate reconstructino, instituion-building, and economic recovery
how is the idea of universal human rights distinguished from relativism
universal human rights are the same for all people regardless of nationality of ethnicity, whereas relativism emphasizes due respect of local traditions and histories
in which of the following areas is there NOT an international treaty regarding human rights
age
international integration is
the process by which supranational institutions come to replace the national ones
the most successful examples of international integrations is
the European Union
the integration theory that asserts that technologoical and economic development lead to more and more supranational structures as states seek practical means to fulfill certain activies is
functionalism
_____ is the theory that economic integration generate a political dynamic that drives integrtation further
neofunctionalism
among the costs of integration for states is
greater centralization at a time when individuals and groups want more autonomy
the first step in creating crosscutting economic linkages in Europe after World War II that would prevent future wars called for the merger of which industries
steel and coal
the Schuman Plan led to the establishment of the
European Coal and Steel Community
which of the following was NOT one of the six original members of the European Coal and Steel Community
Great Britain
Which of the following was a treaty signed by not ratified by all signatories
European Defense Community
the treaty of Rome created which of the following institutions
European Economic Community and European Atomic Energy Community (A and C)
which of the following is the order of progression of economic integration
free trade area, customs union, common market, economic union
the free flow of capital and labor across borders occurs in
a common market
forty percent of the EU budget is spent on
subsides to farmers
which countries were the first to join the (then) European Community after its founding
Norway, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein
____ joined the (then) European Community in 1986
Spain and Portugal
how does the European Commission compare to the Council of European Union
Commission membership is based on one member per member state, whereas Council of the European Union membership varies from one meeting to the next depnding upon the topic being discussed
which of the following European organizations was established first
European Coal and Steel Community
how does the European Parliment compare to the Council of the European Union
the European Parliment is a debating forum with limited legislative power, whereas the Council of the European Union is the legisltive body in the EU
the EU institution that adjuncates disputes that arise under EU law is the
European Court of Justice
the ____ decides major policies of the European Union, whereas the ____ impletements the policies
Council for the European Union and the European Commission
how does the European Court of Justice differ from the World Court
the Court of Justice has established its right to overrule national when it conflicts with EU law and cases before the Court of Justive can be brought by individuals and buisnesses (A and B)
the ____ called for the creation of a common market in Europe by the end of 1992
Single European Act
the chocolate wars in the EU are an examples of
the EU moving to unify standards and integration reaching into every corner of society and affecting people;s daily lives (B and C)
the Maastricht Treaty includes all of the following except
eliminating non-tariff barriers to trade
which of the following is NOT a goal of the Maartricht Treaty
agriculture union
which of the following is NOT a criterion to join a single currency in the EU
a balance of payment deficit less than 10 percent of GDP
which of the following is an implication of expanding the EU's membership
EU institutions will operate more efficiently and disparities in wealth between members will be accentuated (A and C)
which of the following is not a potential consequence of Turkey joining the European Union
Turkish workers would move back to Turkey to find jobs at home
how has the focus of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe changed
it now runs elections and helps political parties in Easter Europe
peace operations of the United Nations include which of the following
traditional peacekeeping, the use of force to protect civilians, the supervision of elections, running the government until a country recovers from a conflict (all of the above)
the concept that governments must act to save civilians from genocide or crimes against humanity perpetuated or allowed by their own governments is
responsbility to protect
with respect to poverty in the global South, which of the following is true
about one billion people live in abjet poverty
____ are concerned with the distribution of wealth between North and South as much as the absolute creation of wealth
socialists
in the world-system, the regions that mostly extract raw material are the _____. and are reffered to as the _____
third world regions, periphery
in the world system, the regions that mostly manufacture goods are the ______. and are refered to as the ______
industrialized regions, core
with respect to the concept of the world system
the semiperiphery acts as a buffer between core and periphery
which of the following is NOT an impact of colonialism
farmland was planted for export crops rather than subsitence crops, the most easily accesible minerals were dug up and shipped away, infrastructure in cities expanded, the education and skills needed to run the economy were largely limited to people from the colonial power (all of the above are impacts of colonialism)
nonviolent resistance to British rule was the means to independence for which British colony
India
among the challenges faced by former colonies upon winning their independence was
a lack of technological and adminstrative skill, an economy based on the export of one or two products leaving them vulnerable to price fluctuations on world markets, borders drawn by European without regard for ethnic rivalries, poorly functioning governments with in some cases increased corruption (all of the above)
neocolonialism is
the continuation of colonial explotation without formal political control
according to dependency theory
the accumulation of capital cannot sustain itself within dependent countries
UNESCO defines literacy as
the ability to read and write a simple sentance
recurrent epidemics and widespread diarrhea, which kills millions of children each year, results from
inadequate sanitation facilites
with respect to the problem of world hunger, which of the following is true
hunger does not usually kill people through starvation but leaves them suseptible to diseases that would not normally be fatal
which of the following is an impact of the shift from subsitence to commercial agriculture in states in the global south
crops are grown for export to pay for supplies such as machinery fuel and pesticides, small plots of land have been consolidated into big plantations, farmers end up working on large farmers rather than growing their own food, crops typically provide little nutrition to the local population (all of the above)
urbanization
often results in more people in countries in the global South with their basic human needs unmet
women's inferior social status in the global South is demonstrated by statistics on
malnourishment, levels of education, literacy rates, access to health care (all of the above)
in which region of the global South are women's literacy rates closer to thoe of men
Latin America
with respect of migrants and refugees
refugees may be granted asylum, which allows them to stay in the new state
international laws and norms
obligate states to accept refugees who arrive at their borders
European states colonized what part of the world
most of the world's territories
what is the relationship between warfare and a lack of basic needs
being at war keeps a society poor and prevents it from meeting its populations basic needs and being poor with unmet basic needs makes socities more prone to war (B and C)
how do semiperiphery regions compact with periphery regions
semiperiphery regions are growing more rapidly than periphery regions
the central aspect of economic development is
capital accumulation
newly industrializing countries (NICs)
have achieved self-sustaining capital accumulation
the most successful NICs are sometimes referred to as the
four tigers
the most successful NICs are
Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, and Singapore
the newly industrializing country that has developed competitve steel and automobile industries is
South Korea
the newly industrializing country that specilizes in electronics and the compute industry is
Taiwan
the newly industrializing country that has competitve electronics and other light industries but which specializes in banking and trade is
Hong Kong
the newly industrialzed country that has focused primarily on trade is
Singapore
which of the following newly industrialized countries are more city-states than nation-states
Hong Kong and Singapore
who was the Chinese leader responsible for instituting the economic reforms that have taken place there since the mid 1970s
Deng Xiaoping
which of the following is NOT an economic reform instituted in China since the mid 1970s
allowing the Chinese yuan to float freely against other currencies
antigoverment protests in China by students, workers, and some government officials took place in
Tiananmen Square in 1989
how does import substitution compare to export-led growth
import substitution seeks to develop local industries to produce items that the country had been importing, whereas export led growth seeks to develop local industries that can compete in specific niches in the world economy
which of the following is a challenge to third world states in concentrating capital for manufactruing
a middle class is necessay to buy manufactured goods like cars of TVs, capital is required to build factories but then that money cannot be used to subsidize food prices or build better schools, a price must be paid in the short term for reducing public consumption sometimes in the form of rioting or violence, competitive factories in technoogically advanced industries can require large amounts of capital and these states lack a source of funds (all of the above)
_____ is a fairly labor-intensive industry that does not require much capital to get started, thereby reduing the capital necessary for manufactruing
textiles
microcredit
uses small loans to poor people, especially to women, to support economic self-sufficiency
what is the relationship between the form of a state's government and economic development
democracy has not accompanied economic development in a systematic or general way
which of the following is NOT a reason corruption has more of an effect on countries in the global south than on industrializing countries
lack of guidelines regarding corruption
when a company is owned partly by an MNC and partly by a local firm or a host government itself this is known as a(n)
joint venture
which of the following is NOT a consideration of MNCs when deciding to invest in a foreign country
ideology of the ruling government party
changing the payment terms of a loan, such as the payment period, is known as
restructing debt
making regular payments of interest and repaying the principle according to the terms of a loan is known as
debt refinancing
loans made on favorable concessionary terms are made from
states to states
the group of state creditors that meets periodically to discuss the international debt situation and renegotion is called them
Paris Club
_____ is the controversial practice of the International Monetary Fund by which domestic economic reforms are required of countries agreeing to new loans
conditionality
with respect to loans from the IMF
they send a signal to private lendes and investors regarding the wisdom of investing in that state
th main forum in which third world staes have pursued concerns about international trade has been
The United Nations Confrence on Trade and Development
most foregin assistance comes from
governments in the NOrth
states from Western Europe, North America, and Japan/Pacific have joined together to form the ______, from which more than 90 percent of government assistance flows
Development Assistance Committee
of the 30 states of the industrialized West that make up the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which one gives the lowest percentage of GDP in foreign aid
the United States
____ refers to grants given in the form of expert assitance in some project
techinical cooperation
_____ refers to grants that can be used to buy certain products from the donor state
credits
the ____ provides US volunteers for technical development assistance in states in the global SOuth
Peace Corps
the model of development assistance by whcih short-term relief (food, water, shelter) is provided to victims of natural disasters or war is the ____ model
disaster relief
the model of developent assistance by which governments and private organizations provide ongoing assitance in the form of projects designed to meet basic needs is the ____ model
handout
the model of development assistance that relies on local communities to determine the needs of their own people and to carry out development projects is the ___ model
Oxfam
among the most corrupt countries in the world in 2008, according to Transparency INternational, wer
Haiti, Somalia, and Burma
despite the perception that international debt crisis is "over" which country in effect defaulted on debts in 2001
Argentina
what is India's niche in the world economy
service and information
which of the following is a consequence for China of the global economic recession in 2008
China's exports stopped growing, China's investments in the United States lost a substancial fraction of their value, China's leaders announced policies aimed at promoting domestic consumption, China's export oriented economy had to be reoriented to domestic markets (all of the above)
which of the following is an important facotr keeping people in desperate poverty in the global South
civil war, corruption, the resource curse, landloacked locations without ready access to trade (all of the above)
in recent years, states in which region have elcted leftist presidents committed to changing course away from free market capitalism and toward a socialist philosophy with more state-owned enterprises
Latin America