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What are the two types of hematuria?
Problems of the lower urinary tract are more likely to have ______ hematuria than are problems of the upper urinary tract.
Patients presenting with _____ hematuria are at a higher risk of having malignancy than patients with _____ hematuria.
What are the most common causes of hematuria?
stones within the urinary tract
What is the most common cause of urinary tract injury in children?
blunt or penetrating trauma
What are risk factors for renal diseases?
history of smoking, occupational exposure to toxic chemicals and dyes, older than 40, prior UTIs or symptoms of irritative voiding, or have had prior urinary disease.
Normal measurements of a kidney:
11cm x 7cm x 3cm.
They are _______ and lie ______ to the psoas muscles in the ________ region at the level of the _____ thoracic vertebra and the ______ lumbar vertebra.
The upper poles lie more _______ than the lower poles.
The inner or true layer is a ______ capsule that is continuous with the outer layer of the _______.
The middle layer is called the _________ _________ and is composed of _________ tissue
What is the outer layer of the kidney called that surrounds the kidney and the adrenal gland?
Which layer protects the kidney from infection?
inner (true) layer
Which layer helps hold the kidney in place and protects it from trauma?
Which layer consists of fibrous connective tissues that protects and anchors the kidneys?
What are the three sections of the inner kidney?
renal parenchyma (cortex)
What do the pyramids do?
collect and transport urine to the collecting system
What does the renal sinus contain?
collecting system, vessels, fat, and lymphatic tissue
What is the echogenic oval region in the midportion of the kidney?
the renal cortex has _________ echogenicity
when the renal cortex is compared with the liver, it is __________
the ureters exit from the _______ aspect of the kidneys and follow a _____ course ______ to the _____ muscle to the ________________ aspect of the urinary bladder
Most stones originate from where?
Stones are more commonly found in men or women?
What is oliguria?
The production of abnormally small amounts of urine.
If infection is present, the lab findings may consist of what?
increased white blood cell count
bacteria in the urine and blood stream
What are the two most common sites of obstruction?
ureteropelvic junction (UPJ)
ureterovesical junction (UVJ)
What is a staghorn calculus?
A stone that fills the renal pelvis and extends into the infundibulum and calyces, causing dilation of the calyces.
the use of _____ ______ when small calculi are suspected increases the chance of seeing posterior acoustic shadowing.
What is the artifact seen with small stones when using color doppler?
What is the sonographic sign for a powerful jet of urine flow into the bladder caused by a partial ureteral obstruction?
burning candle sign
Do stones in the bladder move when patient position is changed?
Are benign or malignant bladder neoplasms more common?
What is the most common bladder neoplasm?
Transitional cell carcinoma
What is dysuria?
painful or difficult urination
Is bladder cancer more common in men or women?
What are the peak ages for bladder cancer incidence?
Most bladder masses are ________ and located at the ______ and along the _____ and ______ walls of the bladder.
The use of _______ ultrasound imaging increases the distinction of the layers of the bladder wall to differentiate between noninvasive and invasive tumors.
Renal Cell Carcinoma is also referred to as _________ or _________.
abnormal lab findings for RCC may be:
erythropoietin blood level
bacteria in the urine
elevated creatinine and BUN
The tumor may spread throughout the kidney and ________ fat, invade the ______ _____ and travel to the ________.
Approximately _______ of patients have METs at the time of diagnosis.
What does TNM stand for?
tumor, node, metastases
Stage 1 RCC criteria:
7cm or smaller and confined to the kidney
Stage 2 RCC criteria:
Larger than 7cm but still confined to the kidney
Stage 3 RCC criteria:
extend into renal vein or vena cava, involve the ipsilateral adreanl gland or perinephric fat or both, or have spread to one local lymph node
Stage 4 RCC criteria:
tumors extend beyond Gerota's fascia to more than one local node or have distant mets.
Sonography is frequently used to visualize the _____ ______ of lesions more effectively than CT or MRI.
A _____ lesion with _____ necrosis is more likely to be hyperechoic.
Larger lesions usually are more ____ and more often ____
______ may have calcifications or appear complex with tumor necrosis or hemorrhage.
If renal vein obstruction is severe, it will show _____ velocity.
More than 90% of malignant diseases that involve the bladder are ____.
Patients with TCC typically have ______ ______.
only about 5% of bladder cancers are ____ in the US.
THe most common appearance of SCC is a large, bulky mass in the _____ ______.
Any neoplasm of the kidney is assumed to be _______.
What does AML stand for? AKA?
AML is a ______ _______ mass that mostly consists of _____ and _____ cells and _______ vessels.
There are 2 types of AML: ______ AML and AML that is associated with ______ _______.
________ is a benign renal cell neoplasm that accounts for a small percentage of all adult primary renal epithelial neoplasms.
The presence of a _______ ________ on CT or MRI and a _______ _______ of vessels on angiogram may be suggestive of oncocytoma.
Renal hemangiomas are frequently located at the _______ ______ or in the _____ ______.
Blood (hematoma) tends to collect either in the ________ space or below the ______ _______.
Hematocrit levels (increase/decrease) in cases with severe blood loss.
Fresh blood (less than ____ hours) may appear _______.
Hematomas in the acute stages are ______.
As a clot forms, the hematoma becomes ______, with _______ and ________ areas.
A chronic hematoma may display areas of _______.
Subscapular hematomas may have the same sonographic echogenicity as the _______ ________.
______ _______ _______ is a very rare neoplasm of the kidney, exclusively composed of adipose tissue with very few cases reported
primary renal lipoma
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