Terms in this set (36)
are universal and inherent privileges and abilities of human beings bestowed by nature or divine power.
political doctrine asserting that in a monarchy the ruler holds sole and unquestionable power by divine authority.
is the political and social system in France and other European monarchies between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries characterized by a rigid class hierarchy and rulers' claims to absolute authority.
as a grant from the Spanish crown to its conquistadors or other Spanish settlers in the Americas, giving them the rights to the labor, services, and tribute payments of the indigenous people in a particular area.
was the transfer of living organisms, including plants, animals, microorganisms, and humans, between Afroeurasia and the Americas starting in 1492.
The Protestant Reformation
resulted in communities that were persecuted by the Holy Inquisition. It began partly to protest the sale of indulgences.
The Catholic Reformation
was sometimes called the Counter-Reformation. The Society of Jesus developed which operated on a global scale. It was directed in large part from the city of Trent.
was the technological and economic processes whereby the use of fossil fuel energy, steam engines, and complex machines led to worldwide economic, social, and environmental transformations.
was a set of economic and political doctrines advocating individual freedom, unrestricted market competition, free trade, constitutional government, and confidence in human progress.
is an emotional or sentimental attachment to a place, ethnic people, or way of life, in modern times often to one's national homeland.
is an economic doctrine contending that trade among states should be unrestricted, principally by lowering or eliminating tariffs or duties on imported goods. Only factors of supply and demand should determine price.
is an ideology centered on the national rights of a people or "nation" to constitute a sovereign state.
The French Revolution
involved a period of terror under the Committee of Public Safety. It was partly accelerated by terrible harvests and widespread hunger.
The Haitian Revolution
began partly in response to harsh new mercantilist laws imposed by the sovereign. It brought the most complete overturning of the established social order. It achieved independence under terrible conditions of abject poverty for most of the population.
The War of Independence
sought to replace the current sovereign but not to overrun the social order.
was the urban middle class. In Marxist thought, it is the property-owning class that oppresses the working class.
was a conflict in which the opposing states mobilize their civilian populations and all available resources to achieve victory. It is also a policy intended to damage or destroy both the enemy's military forces and its economic infrastructure and social fabric.
was the working class. In Marxist theory, it is t class that must overthrow the capitalist upper or middle classes to achieve control of the means of production.
is a system of technology and organization which aims both to produce goods at minimal cost through standardization and mass production and to pay workers at wage rates that allow them to consume the products they make.
is an intellectual movement founded on misleading and phony applications of science that sought to categorize the mental capacity of human groups based on outward physical characteristics.
sparked in part by a religious affront to devoted believers. It caused immense violence but lacked any central direction/
was initiated by a poor schoolteacher.
was the first modern war in which military machine of the industrial era did major damage. It served as a signal of growing volatility among European powers.
War of the Triple Alliance
caused the losing side to become increasingly tied to foreign merchants, land
Marshall Plan in 1947
was an arrangement by the United States to flood Europe with reconstruction aid which eventually totaled about $14 billion in grants.
are social and cultural values and practices centered on the continuous accumulation and use of material goods.
are economic theories that promote government monetary and financial policies aimed at increasing employment and stimulating economic growth.
was a political ideology that advocates authoritarian leadership, intense national loyalty, cultural renewal, and rejection of both liberal democracy and socialism.
is an approach to government in which the state uses public funds to protect and promote the health and prosperity of all citizens.
Martin Luther's ninety-five theses
were mainly directed against the sale of indulgences.
Declaration of Independence.
John Locke's writings about natural rights influenced the ___
France's "three estates"
represented the clergy, nobility, and other classes.
The legendary "Ned Ludd"
was the inspiration for a movement that inspired British workers to destroy the machines that were eliminating jobs.
According to the "Communist Manifesto
the proletariat must rise up to take possession of the economic system that exploits them.
urged Indians to spin and weave their own cloth as part of his philosophy of satyagraha.
author of Silent Spring, warned her readers about DDT and other pesticides that kill animal life.
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