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APUSH Unit 1
Terms in this set (33)
Impact of Corn
This was one of the most important crops grown by Native American peoples in Mexico and South America. Early Native American people even worshipped a good the crop. The growth of this in the Americas helped shape the shift of people from nomadic hunting bands to settled agricultural villagers. This had a huge impact on Pueblo culture as well.
Spanish government's policy to "commend", or give, Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them which was part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland.
Required the Spanish to pay a tax to their king on each slave they imported to the Americas
The Hopewell civilization (also called Adena in some regions) is a prehistoric culture of the American middle west. Recent evidence has pretty much proven that Adena is indistinguishable from the Hopewell of the central North American continent, although there may some regional variations. Village settlements date between 500 BC-AD 200; large shaped burial mounds and extensive trade networks are Adena/Hopewell characteristics.
A culture that emerged during the third century, these people built irrigation canals that enabled them to grow two crops a year in the arid environment. They built permanent towns, some of which joined confederations which linked the towns by canals. The central village in each confederation coordinated labor, trade, religion, and political life. The Hohokam culture drew extensively on Mesoamerican ideas and materials.
Anasazi and Pueblo Cultures
This culture originated in the first century B.C in the Four Corners of the US. The people harvested crops, lived in permanent villages, and made pottery. They became the most powerful people in the southwest. The advanced architecture is still used in Pueblo Indian culture in the southwest. The demise of thei people was drought.
Powerful South American Empire that was destroyed by Pizzaro and resulted in Spanish control of South America.
The most advanced civilization in the America's, their defeat by Europeans left the America's relatively uncoordinated and undefended to halt European exploration and conquest.
A general term for any one of a group of Spanish explorers in the New World who sought to conquer the native people, establish dominance over their lands, and prosper from their natural resources, including gold. The Conquistadors established a large Hispanic empire stretching from Mexico to Chile and wreaked havoc among native populations.
Found the highly advanced Aztec society and defeated them in 1519, which resulted in the conquest of Central America for Spain, the Columbian exchange, and a racial hierarchy.
Took over the Incan Empire in 1632, expanding the Spanish Empire's land and wealth at the expense of Native Americans.
The first English settlement in the New World was on this island, off the coast of North Carolina, established in 1587. Virginia Dare, the first English child born in America was born on this island. The settlement failed, and no one knows what became of the people who first settled there.
A split in Christian unity under the Pope led by Martin Luther in 1517, which ultimately challenged Spain's religious-backed American Empire as national rivalries intensified.
Henry the Navigator
By the 1430s this Portuguese explorers' work established Portugal as a naval power in control of the African coast, thus preventing other European powers from lucrative eastern-sea route trade with Asia.
Exploring for the Spanish crown in 1492, his reports of gold and slaves prompted European investment in conquering the America's, which resulted in the enslavement and near extinction of Native Americans.
Treaty of Tordesillas
In 1494 the Catholic Pope divided the world into Eastern Portuguese and Western Spanish hemispheres, ensuring the Americas were initially a mostly Spanish sphere of exploration and settlement though the eventual flood of immigrants proved the treaty unworkable.
Samuel de Champlain
A Frenchman, explored the Great Lakes and established the first French colony in North America at Quebec in 1608.
An English explorer sponsored by the Dutch East India Company, he sailed up the river that now bears his name in 1609, nearly reaching present-day Albany. His explorations gave the Dutch territorial claims to the Hudson Bay region.
Bartolome de Las Casas
Spanish missionary who was appalled by the encomienda system in Hispaniola and called it "a moral pestilence invented by Satan"
This argument concerned the treatment of natives of the New World where Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas argued that the Amerindians were free men in the natural order and deserved the same treatment as others while scholar Juan Gines de Sepulveda, who insisted that "in order to uproot crimes that offend nature" the Indians should be punished and therefore reducing them to slavery or serfdom was in accordance with Catholic theology and natural law.
A Native American confederacy located in the western United States, they migrated from Minnesota to the Dakotas and became nomadic hunters of buffalo living in tepees and fierce warriors as European colonizers came (in the late 1800s they would fight the US Army).
A semi-nomadic people that used hunting, fishing and gathering as opposed to agriculture and occupied the Atlantic Coast from North Carolina to Maine with very different dialects.
An American Indian language that was widespread throughout Americas which has led researchers to believe it was connected to the language Asian-Americans used when crossing the landbridge to the Americas.
The most powerful Native American group in the Ohio Valley since the 1640s, they were able to remain aloof from both the British and the French as they traded successfully with both groups and played them against each other, which resulted in their maintaining power in the Great Lakes region.
A wooden structure between approximately 8 to 200 feet long and 20 feet wide which contained multiple fire places around which two related nuclear families gathered (when a man was married, he went to live in his wife's).
Technology improved this device which made traveling by ocean more accurate while in open waters which ultimately helped encourage greater exploration by the Europeans.
Technology improved this device which helped spread information faster and more widely which allowed Europe to more quickly take advantage of new information.
Ferdinand and Isabella
These monarchs combined their Christian kingdoms in order to fight back the Moors, would carry out the Reconquista, gave Columbus funds and ships to attempt traveling west to find India.
The most beneficial trade for the Native Americans in the Columbian exchange, this animal revolutionized Native American life allowing for tribes to become more nomadic and hunt buffalo efficiently as well as help with travel.
By far the most devastating impact of the Columbian exchange, this significantly weakened entire Native American groups who were exposed, decimating the population which allowed for forests and animals to grow and significantly increase in number while contributing to a labor shortage that would be resolved by the mass importation of African slaves (who brought different diseases that further wiped out the Native Americans).
Initiated by Portugal where Africans were forced to work on sugar plantations and were subjected to new extremes of dehumanization, this type of labor system treated people as property in order to maximize economic output from struggling colonies.
Inhabitants of the Yucatan Peninsula whose civilization was at it's height from AD 300 to AD 900, their civilization included a unique system of writing, math, architecture, and astronomy.
Juan Gines de Sepulveda
A Spaniard who justified enslaving the Native Americans for gold, ore deposits, and for God's sake and man's faith in him.
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