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Chapter 4: Radiation Quantities and Units
Terms in this set (74)
standards for measuring and limiting exposure
What "standards" were developed as a consistent method to measure patient and personnel dose after the potentially harmful effects of radiation become apparent.
Who discovered x-rays?
November 8, 1895
What was the date when x-rays were discovered?
What type of tube was used when x-rays were first discovered?
When x-rays were discovered, Wilhelm observed light emanating from a piece of paper coated with what?
Cases of somatic damage reported in europe as early as ____.
Many radiation workers developed _____ as a result of occupational exposure.
Cancer and blood disorders
_____ and _____ were more common among radiologists than nonradiologists.
Clarence Madison Dally
Who was the first american radiation fatality?
1904, radiation-induced cancer
When did Clarence Dally die, and what from?
Clarence Dally was the assistant to which famous inventor?
Early investigations into methods to reduce radiation exposure faced two major problems: lack of accurate ______ technique and limited _____ of radiobiology.
When was skin erythema dose the measurement for dose?
Skin erythema dose
The recieved quantity of radiation that causes diffuse redness over an area of skin after irradiation.
it varied from person to person
Why was skin erythema dose an inaccurate way to measure exposure?
What was the first internationally accepted unit of exposure?
__________ was accepted as a dose which occupationally exposed individuals could be subjected to without demonstration of adverse effects.
What can "tolerance dose" be related to?
After the roentgen, scientists becan to research for a more reliable unit to measure than tolerance dose. This research was due after _____ _____ of radiation were recognized.
When did the maximum permissible dose replace tolerance dose?
Maximum permissible dose
This indicated the largest dose that an occupational exposed person was permitted that was not anticipated to result in major adverse effects.
Recommendations for dose limits were based on probability of harm associated with a _____ _____ to other occupations that are considered "reasonable safe"
By _____, radiation units were developed that contained factors acccounting for varied effects of different types of radiation.
tissues or organs
In the 1970s, it was recognized that consequences of exposure depended o nwaht type of _____ or _____ were exposed.
IN ____ the ICRP revised tissue weighting factors based on epidemiologic studies of atomic bomb survivors.
_______ is based on the engery deposited in bioligic tissue by ionizing radiation and takes into account the type of radiation and the variable sensitivity of the tissues exposed.
What is x-radiation or gamma radiation's measurement for quantity?
Coulombs per kilogram (C/kg)
What is exposure's SI unit?
What is exposure's traditional unit?
What is exposure's measuring medium?
ionization of air
What is exposure's radiation efffect measured?
absorbed dose (D), Equivalent dose (EqD), and Effective dose (EfD)
What is all ionizing radiation's units for quantity?
What is aborbed dose's SI unit?
What is aborbed dose's traditional unit?
What is aborbed dose's measuring medium?
amount of energy per unit mass absorbed
What is aborbed dose's radiation effect measured?
What is EqD and EfD's SI unit?
What is EqD and EfD's traditional unit?
What is EqD and EfD's measuring medium
What is EqD and EfD's radiation effect measured?
_____ _____ uses radiation weighting factors to adjust the quantity absorbed dose to reflect the difference in biologic harm paroduced by "different types and energies" of ionizing radiaiont.
______ ______ uses tissue weighting factors to adjust the quantity of equivalent dose to reflect the difference in harm to the person as a whole depending on the "tissues and organs" that have been irradiated.
_____ is defined as radiation ionization in the air.
free-air ionization chamber, accredited calibration lab
Direct measurement for exposure requires a standard or _________ ______ ______ in an _______ _____ _____.
The ______ is defined as the photon exposure that, under standard exposure condtions, produces a total positive or negative ion charg 2.58 x 10^-4 C/kg
2.58 x 10^-4 C/kg
A roentgen must produce a total positive or negative ion charge of ________.
__________ is defined as the amount of energy per unit mass absorbed by the irradiated object.
Absorbed dose is responsible for any ___________ and may be sued to indicate the amount of irradiation a patient received during a procedure
Structures in the body have different ______ _______.
increases, increase, decreases
Absorption _______ as atomic number and mass _______ and as photon energy ______.
R x C/kg
How do you convert Roentgens to Coulombs per kilogram?
How do you convert Rad to Gray?
Gy x 100
How do you convert Gray to Rad?
A modifying factor called ________ adjusts the absorbed dose value to account for the different types of radiation.
Linear Energy Transfer
The amount of energy transferred to an object per unit lengt of path traveled through an object.
LET that transfers a large amount of energy to a small area
____ LET has a high QF.
____ LET has a low QF.
What is the QF for X-ray photons?
What is the QF for fast neutrons?
What is the QF for alpha particles?
What is the QF for beta particles?
What is the QF for gamma particles?
_____ _____ is defined as the product of the average absorbed dose in a tissue and its associated weighting factor.
_______ ______ depends on the type and energy of the radiation.
What is the Weighting Factor for X-ray and gamma ray photons and electrons?
1 Sv = 100 rem
How many rems = 1 sievert?
EqD = (DxWr)1 + (DxWr)2 + (DxWr)3
What is the equasion used for determining and expressing EqD?
____ ____ provides a measure of overall risk of exposure and accounts for the type of radiation used as well as the radiosensitivity of the tissues irradiated by using weighting factors.
Tissue Weighting factor
_____ _____ ____ accounts for the risk to the entire organism brought on by irradiation of individual tissues or organs.
EfD = D x Wr x Wt
What is the equasion used for determining and expressing EfD?
Collective Effective Dose
_____ _____ _____ is used to describe radiation exposure of a population from low doses of different sources of radiation.
Collective Effective dose is determined as the product of the _____ ___ for an individual belonging to an exposed population and the number of persons exposed.
What is the unit for Collective Effective dose?
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