3 Written questions
3 Multiple choice questions
- Juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Autosomal recessive. Causes hypokalemia, hypercalciuria, alkalosis, hyperaldosteronism, and hyerreninemia. Presents between 6-12 months with FTT, constipation, vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia. Treatment is fluid replacement, potassium correction, and nutrition.
- "Sack of worms" feeling in one testicle. Generally not painful but may be tender with exercise. Occurs in 15% of males over 10 years old. Usually occurs on the left. May compromise fertility in which case surgery is indicated. Otherwise education and reassurance suffice.
- Often seen post strep infection. Common presentation is fatigue, cola-colored urine, and elevated blood pressure. Fluid intake should be restricted when oliguria is present.
2 True/False questions
Hydrocele → Accumulation of fluid in the tunica vaginalis around testicle. Transilluminates well. Small ones usually spontaneously resolve within a year. Larger ones may require surgery. Seen in 2% of male neonates.
Nephrotic syndrome → 6 year old boy with puffy eyes in the morning and scrotal swelling at night. Labs show elevated triglycerides and cholesterol. Other findings will include: low albumin, decrease in plasma volume, proteinuria. Treatment may include monitoring and salt and water restriction.