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3 Written questions

3 Multiple choice questions

  1. Accumulation of fluid in the tunica vaginalis around testicle. Transilluminates well. Small ones usually spontaneously resolve within a year. Larger ones may require surgery. Seen in 2% of male neonates.
  2. 6 year old boy with puffy eyes in the morning and scrotal swelling at night. Labs show elevated triglycerides and cholesterol. Other findings will include: low albumin, decrease in plasma volume, proteinuria. Treatment may include monitoring and salt and water restriction.
  3. Juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Autosomal recessive. Causes hypokalemia, hypercalciuria, alkalosis, hyperaldosteronism, and hyerreninemia. Presents between 6-12 months with FTT, constipation, vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia. Treatment is fluid replacement, potassium correction, and nutrition.

2 True/False questions

  1. VaricoceleAccumulation of fluid in the tunica vaginalis around testicle. Transilluminates well. Small ones usually spontaneously resolve within a year. Larger ones may require surgery. Seen in 2% of male neonates.

          

  2. Alport syndromeMost common hereditary nephritis. Typical presentation is microscopic hematuria, especially after URI. 30 - 75% of cases are associated with progressive hearing loss. End stage renal failure is common by 20s - 30s. Usually x-linked. Ocular abnormalities may be seen, as well as rare leiomyomatosis of esophagus or respiratory tract.