business 279 chapter 9
Terms in this set (19)
A process through which you send messages to and receive messages from others.
occurs through the formal (official) lines of authority. This includes communication within your immediate department, division, or throughout the company. Formal communication occurs either vertically or horizontally within 124125an organization. Vertical communication either flows down an organizational structure (via written correspondence, policies/procedures, and directives and announcements from management) or up (most commonly through reports, budgets, and requests). Horizontal communication occurs among individuals or departments at the same or close organizational levels.
occurs among individuals without regard to the formal lines of authority. For example, while eating lunch with friends, you may learn of a new policy.
an informal network where employees discuss work-place issues of importance. However, it rarely is 100 percent accurate. Although it is important to know about current events at work, do not contribute negative or inaccurate information to the grapevine. Avoid making assumptions if the information is incomplete
When the grapevine is targeting individuals and their personal lives, it is called gossip. Gossip is personal information about individuals that is hurtful and inappropriate. Spreading gossip reflects immaturity and unprofessional behavior and you risk losing credibility with others.
the individual conveying a message. The sender must identify what message needs to be sent and how best to transmit this message. The sender has several options for sending the message. The message can be sent verbally, in written form, or non-verbally.
Identifying the specific message and how it will be sent is called encoding.
The receiver is an individual that receives and decodes a message.
Decoding is how the receiver interprets the message. The receiver then sends feedback to 125126the sender.
is a response to a sender based on the receiver's interpretation of the original message.
Another barrier to effective communication is noise. Noise is anything that interrupts or interferes with the communication process. The noise can be audible (you can actually hear it with your ears), or the noise can occur through other senses, such as visual, mental, touch, or smell. Noise may also include emotions such as hurt, anger, joy, sadness, or surprise.
the receiver is selectively hearing parts of the message and is more focused on responding to what is being said instead of truly listening to the entire message being sent. Passive listening is sometimes called conversational listening. In today's society, we have so many inputs trying to attract our attention that we often get anxious to share our point of view in a conversation and interrupt the sender.
When a receiver fails to make any effort to hear or understand the sender's message, he or she is in non-listening mode and is allowing emotions, noise, or preconceptions to impede communication. Sometimes it is obvious the listener is not listening, because he or she either responds inappropriately or does not respond at all.
is the study of distance (space) between individuals and is also an important factor in body language. An individual's personal space is about one-and-a-half feet around him or her. The appropriate social space is four feet from an individual. Standing too close may be interpreted as intimidation or may imply intimacy. Neither is appropriate for the workplace. However, distancing yourself too far from someone may imply your unwillingness to communicate
A business letter is a formal, written form of communication used when your message is being sent to an individual outside of your organization. External audiences may include customers, vendors, suppliers, or members of the community. Although it is still common for formal business letters to be sent through traditional mail, many businesses now send formal business letters as attachments to e-mails. Letters are to be written in proper business format and on company letterhead. Clearly communicate your message and expected follow-up activity to the receiver in a professional and concise manner. Letters sent should be error-free. Proofread, sign, and date the letter before mailing.
is quality paper that has the company logo and contact information imprinted on it. Letters sent as attachments in an e-mail should be typed on company letterhead. Please note that a business letter can have various styles; employees should follow the company-preferred style.
(sometimes called interoffice memorandums) are used internally—that is, when the written communication is being sent to a receiver within an organization. Although e-mail is the most common form of internal communication, a traditional business memorandum is still used for internal formal documentation and announcements and is sometimes attached to an e-mail message. A memo includes the receiver's name, sender's name, date, and subject.
a formal record of events or activities. Some industries require documentation to track a project's progress or an employee's time for client billing. Documentation may be necessary for an employee evaluation, for advancement, in an instance in which a policy is not enforced, or when an abnormal event has occurred that has the potential to evolve into conflict at a later date. These events may support performance issues, business relationships, and business operations. It is not necessary to record every event that occurs at work. Employees should maintain a file of positive feedback received from coworkers, supervisors, or customers.