If the conditioned stimulus is presented again to the subject after a period of rest, the conditioned response reappears.
The tendency to respond to stimuli resembling the conditioned stimulus.
Responding occurs in the presence of one stimulus, but not in the presence of another.
Ran Experiments with cats in puzzle boxes, First studied operant conditioning. Proposed Law of Effect.
Law of Effect
If a response in a presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association between the stimulus and the response will be strenghened. if the response is followed by an annoying event, the association will be weakened.
Studied operant conditioning with rats. Devised Skinner's Box.
The process whereby an organism learns to associate a response and its consequences and thus to repeat acts followed by rewards and avoid acts followed by punishment. occurs across species.
Stimuli that increase the probability of behavior.
Events that are innately reinforcing (food, water, things with biological significance)
Require learning. (Money, Praise etc.)
Presentaton of a desirable stimulus increases the probablility of behavior.
Nothing to do with punishment. Removal of an aversive stimulus increases the probablity of behavior.
Stimuli that decrease the probablility of behavior.
Presentation of an aversive stimulus decreases the probablility of behavior.
Removal of a desirable stimulus decreases the probabliltiy of behavior.
1.Method of successive approximations. 2. Reward responses that are ever-closer to the final desired behavior. 3.Must ignore all previous or unrelated behavior.
Proposed the Social Learning Theory. Experimented with children and observationally learned behaviors.
Social Learning Theory
Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling.
Learning by observing others.
Process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
Advantages of Social Learning
1. Economy-Usually saves time 2. Less dangerous than trial and error 3. Allows for flexible behavior 4. Transmission of knowledge
When do we start imitating?
1.Facial expressions can be imitated by infants as young as 2 or 3 weeks old. 2. 9 month old infants can imitate a novel play behaviour. 3. 14 month olds can imitate acts modeled on television.
Aspects that determine the likelihood of imitation in children
1. Outcome of modeled behavior 2. Similarity between observer and model. 3. Status of model
Bandura, Ross, and Ross, 1961
Experiment with children and bobo dolls. Studied if agression could be learned.
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Information Processing Model
Assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory.
3 Stages of Information Processing Model
1. Encoding 2. Storage 3. Retrieval
Information is stored with very little effort. Examples: Knowledge of event frequency, time and location.
Effort to encode and remember information is required. Examples: Concepts for an exam.
1. 1850-1909 2. First to consistently study memory. 3. Considered the father of memory. 4. Used nonsense syllables to find that the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning and the benefits of over learning.
Tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
Encoding the meaning of terms.
Making "Mental Pictures"
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units.
Second stage of information processing model. Described by the Stage Model
1. Described by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. 2. Says the human memory system is composed of 3 stages of memory system which information must pass. 3. 3 stages are Sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory.
1.First stage of information processing. 2.Sensory receptors are stimulated by external energy. 3.Two types: Iconic Memory and Echoic Memory. 4. Sensory memory can only be maintained for a short amount of time.
Visual information, doesn't last very long
Auditory information, Lasts a little longer than iconic memory. Usually 2-4 seconds.
Short Term Memory
Has a limited storage capacity. Holds memory for only a limited period, unless rehearsal is used. Then is transferred to Long Term Memory.
Digit Span Test
Used to test short term memory capacity by George A. Miller. Says that memory can hold approximatively 5 to 9 items short term.
George A. Miller
1. (1956) 2. Used digit span test. 3. Found that the short term memory can only hold around 7 items at a time.
Long Term Memory
Permanent and limitless reservoir of information.
Portion of long term memory that stores personally experienced events.
Portion of long term memory that stores information related to skills and habits.
Portion of long term memory that stores general facts and information.
Updates to Stage Model
1. Some information can go straight to long term memory, without conscious awareness. 2. Working memory vs. short term memory. Associates new and old information and solves problems. Information that is important or novel that we focus our attention on.
2 Kinds: Recall and Recognition
Measure of memory in which a person must retrieve information learned earlier.
Measure of memory in which a person must identify items.
Error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory.
A stimulus for remembering
The loss of encoded or stored information.
Some information never enters long term memory.
Fading of the physical memory trace.
Difficulty in retrieving information that was previously stored.
Prior learning interferes with recall of new information.
New learning interferes with recall of old information
inability to retrieve memories from much before age 3.
Severe deficit in remembering events caused by problems in the functioning of the memory areas of the brain. Causes: Alzheimer's disease, strokes, chronic alcoholism, brain damage.
Frontal Lobe In Memory
Houses Short term memories: semantic, and episodic
Cerebellum in Memory
Houses procedural memories
Hippocampus in Memory
Houses the formation of new semantic and episodic memories.
A strategy or trick for aiding memory
The forming of mental pictures of the items, people, words, or activities you want to remember.
Linking of new information in short term memory to material stored in long term memory.