96 terms

A & P exam 3

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Hemoglobin
Oxygen-carrying substance in a red blood cell
Granulocytes
White blood cells with granular cytoplasm
Agranulocytes
WBCs lacking granular cytoplasm
Neutrophils
Most numerous WBCs
Platelet
Lacks a nucleus
Membranes
Antigens of the ABO blood group are located on the RBC _____
4
The blood of every person contains one of ___ combinations
A
Type A blood contains antigen ___
B
Type B blood contains antigen B
Anti-B
Type A blood contains ____ antibody in the plasma
Anti-A
Type B blood contains ____ in the plasma
AB
Persons with ABO blood type ___ are considered universal recipients
O
Persons with ABO blood type ___ are considered universal donors
Rhesus monkey
The Rh blood group was named after the ____
Antigen O
Of the antigens in the Rh group, the most important is _____
Rh-
If RBCs lack Rh antigens, the blood is called ____
Clump agglutinate
If an Rh-negative person sensitive to Rh-positive blood receives a transfusion of Rh-positive blood, the donor's cells are likely to _____
Rb+
An Rh-negative woman who might be carrying an _____ fetus is given an injection of RhoGAM to prevent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis)
Endothelium
Simple squamous epithelial tissue called _____ forms the inner linings of the tunica interna of blood vessels
Tunica media
The _____ of an arterial wall contains many smooth muscle cells
Tunica externa
The _____ of an arterial wall is largely composed of connective tissue
Vasoconstrixtion
When contraction of the smooth muscle in a blood vessel wall occurs
Capillaries
Smallest blood vessels are called _____
Hydrostatic
Filtration results when substances are forced through capillary walls by ____ pressure
Osmotic
The presence of plasma proteins in the blood increases its _____ pressure as compared to tissue fluids
Valves
_____ in certain veins close if the blood begins to back up in that vejn
Anterior tibial vein
Drains into popliteal
Basilic vein
Drains into axillary
Brachiocephalic vein
Drains into superior vena cava
Common iliac vein
Drains into Inferior vena cava
External jugular vein
Drains into subclavian
Femoral vein
Drains into external iliac
Popliteal vein
Drains into femoral
Radial vein
Drains into brachial
Anterior tibial artery
Foot and toes
Brachial artery
Biceps muscle
Celiac artery
Upper digestive tract, spleen, and liver
External carotid artery
Jaw, teeth, and face
Internal carotid artery
Brain
Internal iliac artery
Gluteal muscles
Phrenic artery
Diaphragm
Popliteal artery
Knee joint
Renal artery
Kidney
Suprarenal artery
Adrenal gland
Ulnar artery
Forearm muscle
Eosinophils and neutrophils
The 2 granulocytes that contain lysozomes
MAST cell
Releases histamine and heparin
In granules of basophils
Where is histamine stored?
Increases capillary permeability
What is histamine?
B and T
2 types of lymphocytic WBCs
Macrophages
Monocytes change into _____ upon entering the surrounding tissue
Megakaryocytes
Platelets come from large precursor cells called ______
120 days
Lifespan of a RBC
Tunica interna
Composed of a lining of simple squamous epithelium > in contact with the blood; a basement membrane; q layer of elastic tissue known as the INTERNAL ELASTIC LAMINA
Elastic arteries
Conducting - aorta, common carotid; wall is thin compared to size of lumen, conduct blood to medium-sized arteries
Muscular arteries
Distributing - brachial, femoral; capable of vasoconstriction and vasodilation to adjust the rate of blood flow to various structures of the body
Anastomose
Distal ends of two or more vessels unite to form an interconnecting network; between arteries - provide alternate routes for blood to reach a tissue or organ; collateral circulation- alternate blood route
End arteries
Arteries that do not anastomose; occlusion interrupts the blood supply to a whole segment of an organ
Vado vasorem
System of blood vessels within a blood vessel itself
Arterioloes
Very small, almost microscopic, arteries that deliver blood to capillaries; major function is vasoconstriction and vasodilation; key role in regulating blood flow to capillaries and regulations BLOOD PRESSURE
Capillaries
Microscopic vessels through which materials are exchanged between blood and tissue; often called microcirculation; usually connect arterioles and venules; ring of smooth muscle fibers called pre capillary sphincter a regulate blood flow through true capillaries
True capillaries
Emerge from arterioles or metarterioles and are not on the direct route from arteriole to venule
Vasomotion
Intermittent contraction and relaxation of sphincter and smooth muscle allows blood to enter into the area intermittently
Metarteriole
A vessel that emerges from an arteriole - passes through the capillary network - directly to a venule forming an Arteriovenous Shunt
Thoroughfare Channel
Distal end of metarteriole; no smooth muscle; low resistance pathway; reduces blood flow through the capillaries; circulation patterns are controlled by the autonomic nervous system
Venules
Small vessels that are formed from the union of several capillaries > merge to form veins (drain blood from capillaries into veins)
Veins
Consist of the same 3 tunica layers like that of an artery except that tunica media and interna are thinner and the tunica externa are thicker
Blood flow
Volume of blood that flows through any tissue during a given period of time (ml/min)
Blood velocity
Inversely proportional to the cross-sectional Ada of blood vessels
Circulation time
Time it takes blood to make an entire circuit - right atrium to right atrium (approx. 1 min.)
Volume of blood flow
Determined by pressure and resistance; blood flows from regions of higher pressure to regions of lower pressure; the higher the resistance, the lower the blood flow in any particular area
Blood pressure
Hydrostatic pressure e exerted on the walls of a blood vessel
Factors of blood pressure
Cardiac output
Blood volume and viscosity
Resistance
Elasticity of vessels (arteries)
As blood leaves the aorta and flows through the systemic circulation, it's pressure progressively falls to 0 mmHg by the time it reaches the right atrium
Pulse pressure
Difference between systolic BP and diastolic BP; normally about 49 mm Hg; gives information about condition of arteries
Resistance
Opposition to blood flow as a result of friction between blood and the walls of the vessels - is dependent upon 3 variables
1. Blood viscosity
2. Blood vessel length
3. Blood vessel radius
Systemic vascular resistance
The sum total of all of the vascular resistances due to the systemic vessels
Venous return
essay
Volume of blood flowing back to the heart from the systemic veins - is dependent on:
1. Skeletal muscle contraction
2. Valves in veins
3. Respiratory pressure waves
4. Venoconstriction
Capillary exchange
Refers to the entering and exiting of substances through the capillaries
Hemoglobin
Consists of protein (globin) and 4 nonprotein pigments called Hemes - each capable of combining with one oxygen molecule
Leukocytosis
Increase in number of WBCs above 10,000
Leukopenia
Decrease in number of WBCs below 5,000
Positive chemotaxis
Attraction of phagocytes to an injured area
Emigration
Process by which WBCs leave the bloodstreann
Diapedesis
WBCs move through interstitial spaces by self propulsion called amoeboid motion
Granulocytes
Presence of granules in cytoplasm; type of WBC filled with microscopic granules that are little sacs containing enzymes, compounds that digest microorganisms
Neutrophils
Nucleus with 2-5 lobes; granules stain pink in neutral solution; 54-62% of total WBC *phagocytosis, destruction of bacteria
Eosinophils
Nucleus is bilobed; granules stain red in acid stain; killing of parasitic worms and help control inflammation and allergic reactoons
Basophils
Nucleus lobed; granules stain blue in basic stain; *release heparin, histamine, and seratonin in allergic reactions, intensify inflammatory response
Monocytes
Destruction of relatively large particles by phagocytosis
Lymphocytes
Nucleus nearly fills cell; sky blue cytoplasm; *immune response
Blood clotting
A. Formation of prothrombinase
B. Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
C. Conversion of soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin
Agglutinogen
Antigens contained on the surfaces of RBCs that are genetically determined and determine blood type
Antigen
Substance that will provoke an immune response
Antibodies
Contained in the plasma, against the blood group antigens not on the surface of the host rbc
Erythroblastosis fetalis
Hemolytic disease of the newborn; second exposure causes problems
Formed elements
RBCs, WBCs, and platelets