Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Ch 20: Peripheral Vascular System and Lymphatic System (2 sets)
Terms in this set (58)
A function of the venous system is:
a) to hold more blood when blood volume increases
b) to conserve fluid and plasma proteins that leak out of the capillaries
c) to form a major part of the immune system that defends the body against disease
d) to absorb lipids from the intestinal tract.
The organs that aid the lymphatic system are:
a) liver, lymph nodes, and stomach
b) pancreas, small intestine, and thymus
c) spleen, tonsils, and thymus
d) pancreas, spleen, and tonsils
Ms. T. has come for a
. She complains of
dependent edema, varicosities in the legs, and hemorrhoids
. The best response is:
a) "If these symptoms persist, we will perform an amniocentesis."
b) "If these symptoms persist, we will discuss having you hospitalized."
c) "The symptoms are caused by the pressure of the growing uterus on the veins. They are usual conditions of pregnancy."
d) "At this time, the symptoms are a minor inconvenience. You should learn to accept them."
A pulse with an amplitude of 3+ would be considered:
a) irregular, with 3 premature beats
b) increased, full
Inspection of a person's right hand reveals a red, swollen area. To further assess for infection, you would palpate the:
a) cervical node
b) axillary node
c) epitrochlear node
d) inguinal node
To screen for deep vein thrombosis, you would:
a) measure the circumference of the angle.
b) check the temperature with the palm of the hand.
c) compress the dorsalis pedis pulse, looking for blood return.
d) measure the widest point with a tape measure.
During the examination of the lower extremities, you are unable to
palpate the popliteal pulse
. You should:
a) proceed with the examination. It is often impossible to palpate this pulse.
b) refer the patient to a vascular surgeon for further evaluation.
c) schedule the patient for a venogram.
d) schedule the patient for an ateriogram.
While reviewing a medical record, a notation of
of the right leg is noted. The best description of this type of edema is:
a) mild pitting, no perceptible swelling of the leg.
b) moderate pitting, indentation subsides rapidly.
c) deep pitting, leg looks swollen.
d) very deep pitting, indentation lasts a long time.
The examiner wishes to assess for
arterial deficit in the lower extremities
. After raising the legs 12 inches off the table and then having the person sit up and dangle the leg, the color should return in:
a) 5 seconds or less
b) 10 seconds or less
c) 15 seconds.
d) 30 seconds.
A 54-year-old woman with five children has
varicose veins of the lower extremities
. Her most characteristic sign is:
a) reduced arterial circulation
b) blanching, deathlike appearance of the extremities on elevation
c) loss of hair on feet and toes
d) dilated, tortuous superficial bluish vessels.
Atrophic skin changes
that occur with
peripheral arterial insufficiency
a) thin, shiny skin with loss of hair
b) brown discoloration
c) thick, leathery skin
d) slow-healing blisters on the skin
a) muscular pain relieved by exercise
b) neurologic pain relieved by exercise.
c) muscular pain brought on by exercise
d) neurologic pain brought on by exercise
A known risk factor for
venous ulcer development
b) male gender
c) history of hypertension
d) daily aspirin therapy
a) acute in onset.
d) associated with diminished pulses.
a) deposition of fatty plaques on the intima of the arteries.
b) loss of elasticity of the walls of blood vessels.
c) loss of lymphatic tissue that occurs in the aging process.
d) progressive enlargement of the intramuscular calf veins.
a) when the patient's extremities are exposed to heat and compression.
b) in hands and feet as a result of exposure to cold, vibration, and stress.
c) after removal of lymph nodes or damage to lymph nodes and channels.
d) as a result of leg cramps due to excessive walking of climbing stairs.
Which of these statements is true regarding the
A) Arteries are large-diameter vessels.
B) The arterial system is a high-pressure system.
C) The walls of arteries are thinner than those of veins.
D) Arteries can expand greatly to accommodate a large blood volume increase
The pumping heart makes the arterial system a high-pressure system.
The nurse is reviewing the blood supply to the arm. The major artery supplying the arm is the _____ artery.
D) Deep palmar
The major artery supplying the arm is the brachial artery. The brachial artery bifurcates into the ulnar and radial arteries immediately below the elbow. In the hand, the ulnar and radial arteries form two arches known as the superficial and deep palmar arches.
The nurse is preparing to assess the
dorsalis pedis artery
. Where is the correct location for palpation?
A) Behind the knee
B) Over the lateral malleolus
C) In the groove behind the medial malleolus
D) Lateral to the extensor tendon of the great toe
The dorsalis pedis artery is located on the dorsum of the foot. The nurse should palpate just lateral to and parallel with the extensor tendon of the big toe. The popliteal artery is palpated behind the knee. The posterior tibial pulse is palpated in the groove between the malleolus and the Achilles tendon. There is no pulse palpated at the lateral malleolus.
A 65-year-old patient is experiencing pain in his left calf when he exercises that disappears after resting for a few minutes. The nurse recognizes that this description is most consistent with _________ the left leg.
A) venous obstruction of
B) claudication due to venous abnormalities in
C) ischemia caused by partial blockage of an artery supplying
D) ischemia caused by complete blockage of an artery supplying
Ischemia is a deficient supply of oxygenated arterial blood to a tissue. A partial blockage creates an insufficient supply, and the ischemia may be apparent only during exercise when oxygen needs increase.
The nurse is reviewing
venous blood flow patterns
. Which of these statements best describes the mechanism(s) by which venous blood returns to the heart?
A) Intraluminal valves ensure unidirectional flow toward the heart.
B) Contracting skeletal muscles milk blood distally toward the veins.
C) The high-pressure system of the heart helps to facilitate venous return.
D) Increased thoracic pressure and decreased abdominal pressure facilitate venous return to the heart.
Blood moves through the veins by (1) contracting skeletal muscles that milk the blood proximally; (2) pressure gradients caused by breathing, in which inspiration makes the thoracic pressure decrease and the abdominal pressure increase; and (3) the intraluminal valves, which ensure unidirectional flow toward the heart.
Which of these veins are responsible for most of the
venous return in the arm
The superficial veins of the arms are in the subcutaneous tissue and are responsible for most of the venous return.
A 70-year-old patient is scheduled for open-heart surgery. The surgeon plans to use the
great saphenous vein
for the coronary bypass grafts. The patient asks, "What happens to my circulation when the veins are removed?" The nurse should reply:
A) "Venous insufficiency is a common problem after this type of surgery."
B) "Oh, we have lots of veins—you won't even notice that it has been removed."
C) "You will probably experience decreased circulation after the veins are removed."
D) "Because the deeper veins in your leg are in good condition, this vein can be removed without harming your circulation."
As long as the femoral and popliteal veins remain intact, the superficial veins can be excised without harming the circulation. The other responses are not correct.
The nurse is reviewing
risk factors for venous disease
. Which of these situations best describes a person at highest risk for development of venous disease?
A) Woman in her second month of pregnancy
B) Person who has been on bed rest for 4 days
C) Person with a 30-year, 1 pack per day smoking history
D) Elderly person taking anticoagulant medication
risk for venous disease
are people who undergo prolonged standing, sitting, or bed rest. Hypercoagulable (not anticoagulated) states and vein wall trauma also place the person at risk for venous disease. Obesity and pregnancy are also risk factors, but not the early months of pregnancy.
The nurse is teaching a review class on the
. A participant shows correct understanding of the material with which statement?
A) "Lymph flow is propelled by the contraction of the heart."
B) "The flow of lymph is slow compared with that of the blood."
C) "One of the functions of the lymph is to absorb lipids from the biliary tract."
D) "Lymph vessels have no valves, so there is a free flow of lymph fluid from the tissue spaces into the bloodstream."
The flow of lymph is slow compared with that of the blood.
Lymph flow is not propelled by the heart, but rather by contracting skeletal muscles, pressure changes secondary to breathing, and by contraction of the vessel walls.
Lymph does not absorb lipids from the biliary tract.
The vessels do have valves, so flow is one way from the tissue spaces to the bloodstream.
When performing an assessment of a patient, the nurse notices the presence of an enlarged right epitrochlear lymph node. What should the nurse do next?
A) Assess the patient's abdomen, and notice any tenderness.
B) Carefully assess the cervical lymph nodes, and check for any enlargement.
C) Ask additional history questions regarding any recent ear infections or sore throats.
D) Examine the patient's lower arm and hand, and check for the presence of infection or lesions.
The epitrochlear nodes are located in the antecubital fossa and drain the hand and lower arm. The other actions are not correct for this assessment finding.
A 35-year-old man is seen in the clinic for an infection in his left foot. Which of these findings should the nurse expect to see during an assessment of this patient?
A) Hard and fixed cervical nodes
B) Enlarged and tender inguinal nodes
C) Bilateral enlargement of the popliteal nodes
D) "Pellet-like" nodes in the supraclavicular region
The inguinal nodes in the groin drain most of the lymph of the lower extremities. With local inflammation, the nodes in that area become swollen and tender.
The nurse is examining the lymphatic system of a healthy 3-year-old child. Which finding should the nurse expect?
A) Excessive swelling of the lymph nodes
B) The presence of palpable lymph nodes
C) No nodes palpable because of the immature immune system of a child
D) Fewer numbers and a smaller size of lymph nodes compared with those of an adult
Lymph nodes are relatively large in children, and the superficial ones often are palpable even when the child is healthy.
During an assessment of an older adult, the nurse should expect to notice which finding as a
normal physiologic change associated with the aging process
A) Hormonal changes causing vasodilation and a resulting drop in blood pressure
B) Progressive atrophy of the intramuscular calf veins, causing venous insufficiency
C) Peripheral blood vessels growing more rigid with age, producing a rise in systolic blood pressure
D) Narrowing of the inferior vena cava, causing low blood flow and increases in venous pressure resulting in varicosities
Peripheral blood vessels grow more rigid with age, resulting in a rise in systolic blood pressure. Aging produces progressive enlargement of the intramuscular calf veins, not atrophy. The other options are not correct.
A 67-year-old began to have pain in his left calf when climbing 10 stairs. Pain is relieved by sitting for ~2 minutes; then he is able to resume his activities. The nurse interprets that this patient is most likely experiencing:
B) sore muscles.
C) muscle cramps.
D) venous insufficiency.
Intermittent claudication feels like a "cramp" and is usually relieved by rest within 2 minutes. The other responses are not correct.
A patient complains of
leg pain that wakes him at night
. He states that he "has been having problems" with his legs. He has pain in his legs when they are elevated that disappears when he dangles them. He recently noticed "a sore" on the inner aspect of the right ankle. On the basis of this history information, the nurse interprets that the patient is most likely experiencing:
A) pain related to lymphatic abnormalities.
B) problems related to arterial insufficiency.
C) problems related to venous insufficiency.
D) pain related to musculoskeletal abnormalities.
Night leg pain is common in aging adults. It may indicate the ischemic rest pain of peripheral vascular disease. Alterations in arterial circulation cause pain that becomes worse with leg elevation and is eased when the extremity is dangled.
During an assessment, the nurse uses the "profile sign" to detect:
A) pitting edema.
B) early clubbing.
C) symmetry of the fingers.
D) insufficient capillary refill.
The nurse should use the profile sign (viewing the finger from the side) to detect early clubbing.
The nurse is performing an assessment on an adult. The adult's vital signs are normal and
capillary refill time
is 5 seconds. What should the nurse do next?
A) Ask the patient about a past history of frostbite.
B) Suspect that the patient has a venous insufficiency problem.
C) Consider this a delayed capillary refill time and investigate further.
D) Consider this a normal capillary refill time that requires no further assessment.
Normal capillary refill time is <1-2 seconds.
The following conditions can skew the findings:
a cool room, decreased body temperature, cigarette smoking, peripheral edema, and anemia
When assessing a patient the nurse notes that the left femoral pulse as diminished, 1+/4+. What should the nurse do next?
A) Document the finding.
B) Auscultate the site for a bruit.
C) Check for calf pain.
D) Check capillary refill in the toes.
If a pulse is weak or diminished at the femoral site, auscultate for a bruit.
Presence of a bruit, or turbulent blood flow, indicates partial occlusion.
The other responses are not correct.
When performing a peripheral vascular assessment on a patient, the nurse is
unable to palpate the ulnar pulses
. The patient's skin is warm and capillary refill time is normal. The nurse should next:
A) check for the presence of claudication.
B) refer the individual for further evaluation.
C) consider this a normal finding and proceed with the peripheral vascular evaluation.
D) ask the patient if he or she has experienced any unusual cramping or tingling in the arm.
It is not usually necessary to palpate the ulnar pulses. The ulnar pulses are often not palpable in the normal person. The other responses are not correct.
The nurse is assessing the pulses of a patient who has been admitted for untreated hyperthyroidism. The nurse should expect to find a(n) _____ pulse.
D) weak, thready
A full, bounding pulse occurs with
hyperkinetic states (such as exercise, anxiety, fever), anemia, and hyperthyroidism
Absent pulse occurs with occlusion.
Weak, thready pulses occur with
shock and peripheral artery disease.
The nurse is preparing to perform a
modified Allen test
. Which is an appropriate reason for this test?
A) To measure the rate of lymphatic drainage
B) To evaluate the adequacy of capillary patency before venous blood draws
C) To evaluate the adequacy of collateral circulation before cannulating the radial artery
D) To evaluate the venous refill rate that occurs after the ulnar and radial arteries are temporarily occluded
modified Allen test
is used to evaluate the adequacy of collateral circulation before the radial artery is cannulated. The other responses are not reasons for a modified Allen test.
A patient has a positive
. The nurse knows that a positive Homans' sign may indicate:
A) venous insufficiency.
B) deep vein thrombosis.
C) severe edema.
D) problems with arterial circulation.
Calf pain on dorsiflexion of the foot is a positive Homans' sign
, which occurs in about 35% of
deep vein thromboses
. It also occurs with
superficial phlebitis, Achilles tendinitis, and gastrocnemius and plantar muscle injury.
A patient has been diagnosed with
. Which of these findings would the nurse most likely observe?
A) A unilateral cool foot --ARTERIAL
B) Thin, shiny, atrophic skin --- ARTERIAL
C) Pallor of the toes and cyanosis of the nail beds --- ARTERIAL
D) A brownish discoloration to the skin of the lower leg --- VENOUS
A brown discoloration occurs with chronic venous stasis as a result of
(by-product of RBC degradation).
Pallor, cyanosis, atrophic skin, and unilateral coolness are all signs associated with arterial problems.
The nurse is attempting to
assess the femoral pulse
in an obese patient. Which of these actions would be most appropriate?
A) Have the patient assume a prone position.
B) Ask the patient to bend his or her knees to the side in a froglike position.
C) Press firmly against the bone with the patient in a semi-Fowler position.
D) Listen with a stethoscope for pulsations because it is very difficult to palpate the pulse in an obese person.
To help expose the femoral area, particularly in obese people, the nurse should ask the person to bend his or her knees to the side in a froglike position.
When auscultating over a patient's femoral arteries the nurse notices the presence of a
on the left side. The nurse knows that:
A) bruits are often associated with venous disease.
B) bruits occur in the presence of lymphadenopathy.
C) hypermetabolic states will cause bruits in the femoral arteries.
D) bruits occur with turbulent blood flow, indicating partial occlusion.
occurs with turbulent blood flow and indicates partial occlusion of the artery. The other responses are not correct.
How should the nurse document
mild, slight pitting edema
present at the ankles of a pregnant patient?
D) Brawny edema
is present, then the nurse should grade it on a scale of 1+ (mild) to 4+ (severe).
appears as non-pitting edema and feels hard to the touch.
A patient has
hard, nonpitting edema
of the left lower leg and ankle. The right leg has no edema. Based on these findings, the nurse recalls that:
A) nonpitting, hard edema occurs with lymphatic obstruction.
B) alterations in arterial function will cause this edema.
C) phlebitis of a superficial vein will cause bilateral edema.
D) long-standing arterial obstruction will cause pitting edema.
occurs with occlusion of a deep vein and with unilateral lymphatic obstruction. With these factors, the edema is nonpitting and feels hard to the touch (brawny edema).
When assessing a patient's pulse, the nurse notes that the
amplitude is weaker during inspiration and stronger during expiration
. When the nurse measures the blood pressure, the reading decreases 20 mm Hg during inspiration and increases with expiration. This patient is experiencing pulsus:
, beats have a weaker amplitude with inspiration and a stronger amplitude with expiration. It is best determined during blood pressure measurement; reading decreases (>10 mm Hg) during inspiration and increases with expiration.
The nurse is performing a peripheral vascular assessment on a bedridden patient and notices the following findings in the right leg: increased warmth, swelling, redness, tenderness to palpation, and a
positive Homan's sign
. The nurse should:
A) reevaluate the patient in a few hours.
B) consider this a normal finding for a bedridden patient.
C) seek emergency referral because of the risk of pulmonary embolism.
D) ask the patient to raise his leg off of the bed and check for pain on elevation.
Increased warmth, swelling, redness, and tenderness in the lower extremities require emergency referral because of the risk of pulmonary embolism from a deep vein thrombosis.
During an assessment the nurse has elevated a patient's legs 12 inches off the table and has had him wag his feet to drain off venous blood. After helping him to sit up and dangle his legs over the side of the table, the nurse should expect a normal finding at this point would be:
A) marked elevational pallor.
B) venous filling within 15 seconds.
C) no change in coloration of the skin.
D) color returning to the feet within 20 seconds of assuming a sitting position
In this test it normally takes 10 seconds or less for the color to return to the feet and 15 seconds for the veins of the feet to fill. Marked elevational pallor as well as delayed venous filling occurs with arterial insufficiency.
During a clinic visit, a woman in her seventh month of
complains that her legs feel "heavy in the calf" and that she often has foot cramps at night. The nurse notices that the patient has dilated, tortuous veins in her lower legs. Which condition is reflected by these findings?
A) Deep vein thrombophlebitis
B) Varicose veins
D) Raynaud's phenomenon
Superficial varicose veins
are caused by incompetent distant valves on veins, which results in reflux of blood and producing dilated, tortuous veins. They are more common in women, and pregnancy can also be a cause.
Symptoms include aching, heaviness in the calf, easy fatigability, and night leg or foot cramps.
Dilated, tortuous veins are seen on assessment.
The nurse is preparing to perform a
manual compression test
on a patient. Which of these statements is true?
A) Rapid filling of the veins indicates incompetent veins.
B) Competent valves in the veins will transmit a wave to the distal fingers.
C) A palpable wave transmission occurs when the valves are incompetent.
D) The test assesses whether the valves of varicosity are competent when the person is in the supine position.
manual compression test
, a palpable wave transmission occurs when the valves are incompetent. Competent veins will prevent a wave transmission and the nurse's distal (lower) fingers will feel no change. The test is performed while the patient is standing.
During an assessment, the nurse notices that a patient's left arm is swollen from the shoulder down to the fingers, with
nonpitting brawny edema
. The right arm is normal. The patient had a left-sided mastectomy 1 year ago. The nurse suspects which problem?
A) Venous stasis
D) Deep vein thrombosis
after breast cancer causes unilateral swelling and
nonpitting brawny edema
, with overlying skin indurated. It is caused by the removal of lymph nodes with breast surgery or damage to lymph nodes and channels with radiation therapy for breast cancer, and it can impede drainage of lymph. The other responses are not correct.
The nurse is preparing to assess the
ankle-brachial index (ABI)
of a patient. Which statement about the ABI is true?
A) Normal ABI indices are from 0.50 to 1.0.
B) The normal ankle pressure is slightly lower than the brachial pressure.
C) The ABI is a reliable measurement of peripheral vascular disease in diabetic individuals.
ABI of 0.90 - 0.70
indicates the presence of peripheral vascular disease and mild claudication.
Use of the Doppler stethoscope is a noninvasive way to determine the extent of peripheral vascular disease. The normal ankle pressure is slightly greater than or equal to the brachial pressure. An
ABI of 0.90 to 0.70
indicates the presence of peripheral vascular disease and mild claudication. The ABI is less reliable in patients with diabetes mellitus because of claudication, which makes the arteries noncompressible and may give a falsely high ankle pressure.
Omit: Child question
When using a Doppler ultrasonic stethoscope, the nurse recognizes venous flow when which sound is heard?
A) Low humming sound
B) Regular "lub, dub" pattern
C) Swishing, whooshing sound
D) Steady, even, flowing sound
When using the Doppler ultrasonic stethoscope, the pulse site is found when one hears a swishing, whooshing sound.
The nurse is describing a
weak, thready pulse
on the documentation flow sheet. Which statement is correct?
A) "Easily palpable, pounds under the fingertips."
B) "Greater than normal force, then collapses suddenly."
C) Hard to palpate, may fade in and out, easily obliterated by pressure."
D) "Rhythm is regular, but force varies with alternating beats of large and small amplitude."
weak, thready pulse
is hard to palpate, may fade in and out, and is easily obliterated by pressure. It is associated with decreased cardiac output and peripheral arterial disease.
During an assessment, a patient tells the nurse that her fingers often change color when she goes out in cold weather. She describes these episodes as her fingers first turning white, then blue, then red with a burning, throbbing pain. The nurse suspects that she is experiencing:
B) Raynaud's disease.
C) deep vein thrombosis.
D) chronic arterial insufficiency.
The condition with episodes of abrupt, progressive tricolor change of the fingers in response to cold, vibration, or stress is known as Raynaud's disease. Lymphedema is described in Table 20-2; deep vein thrombosis is described in Table 20-5; chronic arterial insufficiency is described in Table 20-4.
During a routine office visit, a patient takes off his shoes and shows the nurse "this awful sore that won't heal." On inspection, the nurse notes a
3-cm round ulcer on the left great toe, with a pale ischemic base, well-defined edges, and no drainage
. The nurse should assess for other signs and symptoms of:
B) a venous stasis ulcer.
C) an arterial ischemic ulcer.
D) deep vein thrombophlebitis.
Arterial ischemic ulcers
Occur at toes, metatarsal heads, heels, and lateral ankle
Characterized by a pale ischemic base, well-defined edges, and no bleeding.
See Table 20-5 for a description of varicose veins and deep vein thrombophlebitis. See Table 20-4 for a description of venous stasis ulcers.
The nurse is reviewing an assessment of a patient's
and notices that the documentation states that the radial pulses are "2+." The nurse recognizes that this reading indicates what type of pulse?
When documenting the force, or amplitude, of pulses:
3+ indicates an increased, full, or bounding pulse
2+ indicates a normal pulse
1+ indicates a weak pulse
0 indicates an absent pulse.
After several hours of orthopedic surgery, the nurse will monitor the lower legs for signs of acute venous symptoms. Signs of
acute venous symptoms
include which of the following? Select all that apply.
A) Intense, sharp pain, with the deep muscle tender to touch
B) Sudden onset
C) Warm, red, and swollen calf
CHRONIC VENOUS PROBLEMS
D) Aching, tired pain, with a feeling of fullness
E) Pain is worse at the end of the day
F) Pain that is relieved with elevation of legR
ANS: A, B, C
Signs and symptoms of
acute venous problem
s include pain in the calf that has a sudden onset and that is intense and sharp with tenderness in the deep muscle when touched. The calf is warm, red, and swollen. The other options are symptoms of chronic venous problems.
A patient has been admitted with
chronic arterial symptoms
. Select all that apply.
A) The patient has a history of diabetes and cigarette smoking. -ARTERIAL
B) The patient's skin is pale and cool. -ARTERIAL
C) The patient states that the pain gets worse when walking. - ARTERIAL
D) The patient's ankles have two small, weeping ulcers. -VENOUS
E) The patient works long hours sitting at a computer desk. -VENOUS
F) The patient states that the pain is worse at the end of the day. -VENOUS
ANS: A, B, C
See Table 20-3.
chronic arterial symptoms
: (1) history of smoking and diabetes. (2) pain has a gradual onset, with exertion, and is relieved with rest or dangling. (3) skin appears cool and pale.
D,E,F: chronic venous problems.
What is the second branch of the external carotid artery
What type of blood do the arteries carry and where to
what breaks down the nucleic acids into nucleotides
What bones make up the toes?
Sets found in the same folder
Ch 19: Heart and Neck Vessels (2 sets)
Ch 18: Thorax and Lungs (2 sets)
Ch 21: Abdomen (2 sets)
Jarvis: Ch 20 Peripheral Vascular and Lymphatic Sy…
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 20: Peripheral Vascular System and Lymphat…
Ch:20 Peripheral Vascular System and Lymphatic Sys…
Chapter 20 Jarvis
Jarvis Ch. 20: Peripheral Vascular System and Lymp…
Other sets by this creator
DIABETES_NCLEX Style Practice Questions - MedSurg
Research_CH3_Understanding Evidence-Based Practice
Fain Ch 1
Other Quizlet sets
Chapter 14 lesson 1
Botany exam 3
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Which of the following insert on the arm? a. Biceps brachii, b. Triceps brachii, c. Trapezius, d. Latissimus dorsi.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
John, age 24, is involved in an automobile accident. Ken, a paramedic, arrives on the scene and does emergency first aid. John has multiple lacerations on his hand and arms; the laceration on his right arm is bleeding profusely. Ken applies a pressure bandage and notes that John’s blood pressure is 90/60. Ken starts an intravenous line and transports John to the hospital. The ER physician examines John and notes he also has contusions near his liver. The physician has the med tech draw blood for a CBC and to type and cross-match for blood. Why is the ER physician concerned about possible liver damage? How does liver damage relate to the blood?
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Name and describe from the inside out the three tunics making up the walls of arteries and veins, and give the most important function of each layer.
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Distinguish among orgasm, emission, and ejaculation.