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The __ is a passageway shared by both food and air.


What name is given to the sheet of muscle that helps move air in and out of the lungs?


Within the lungs, gas exchange occurs across


In the capillaries of the head, oxygen released from hemoglobin first difusss into the

blood plasma

Most carbon dioxide is carried in the blood as

bicarbonate ions

High-flying birds are able to obtain enough oxygen even when the air is very thin for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that

they have more efficient lungs than other vertebrates

If you were to move from a sea level high altitude, your body would respond with all of the following adaptations EXCEPT an

increase in the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen

The most basic reason why animals need a continuous supply of oxygen is that

without it, animals cannot obtain enough energy from their food

The main waste product of aerobic respiration is

carbon dioxide

The process of mocing air in and out of the lungs is called


Animals that use their body surface for gas exchange must

have a high ratio of body surgace area to volume

The part of an animal where gas exchange occurs is called the

respiratory surface

Which of the following statements is NOT true?

a terrestrial animal spends much more energy than an aquatic animal ventilating its respiratory surface

Gills are generally unsuitable for animals living on land because

the wet surfaces tend to stick tofether and collapse when exposed to air

Which of the following is likely to have the lowest concentration of O2?

a warm salt water

The organization of blood and water flow in a fish's gills increase the fish's ability to extract oxygen from the water because

the deoxygenated blood entering a gill lamella encounters deoxygenated water first

Which of the following in NOT a characteristic of fish gills?

they have poor blood supply

The chief advantage of exchanging gases in water is that

no energy need be expended to keep the exchange surface wet

In the countercurrent exchange systems of fish gills

the blood and water flow in opposite directions

Which one of the following in NOT true?

vocal chords in our bronchi allow us to speak

Which of the following animals requires the largest and most complex lungs proportional to its overall body size?


Which of the following choices lists the correct path of carbon dioxide moving out from the interior of the body?

alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx

Which of the following in NOT a function of that nasal cavities in humans?

secretion of excess carbon dioxide into exhaled air

Which of the following components of the respiratory system does NOT have a ciliated surface covered by a thing film of mucus?


Which one of the following statements is not true?

Breathing secondary cigarette smoke is not a serious health risk

Cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke

all of the choices are correct

Why do cigarette smokers cough more than most people?

cigarette smoke destroys the cilia that normally move debris out of the lungs. coughing is the remaining way to clean the lungs.

The maximum amount of air that a human can inhale and exhale is called the

vital capacity

Air leaving human lungs during exhalation contains

carbon dioxide and oxygen

Compared to the vital capacity, how much air can the lungs actually hold?

always more

The function of air sacs in birds is to

permit one--way ventilation of the lungs

Which of the following statements is NOT true about inhalation in birds?

The anterior sacs fill with air, and the posterior sacs empty

Which of the following is the main reason why bird lungs are more efficient at extracting oxygen from air than the best mammalian lungs?

the bird lung has no residual volume because it is composed of tiny tubes through which air passes in only one direction

Inhalation in humans is achieved by

contraction of the diaphragm and chest muscle

When you are breathing gently, exhalation results mainly from

the relaxation of the chest muscles and diaphragm

Explain countercurrent exchange in fish gills in depth.


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