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The Origins of American Politics

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John Adams
federalist; first vice president; 2nd president of the United States-aka
cabinet
a group of advisors who also are the department heads that run the executive branch of gov't
secretaries
official in charge of a department of government
Secretary of the State
deals with foreign affairs
Secretary of the Treasury
deals with finances
Secretary of War
runs the military
The Attorney General
deals with legal issues and law enforcement
Thomas Jefferson
Adam's secretary of state
alexander hamilton
adam's secretary of the treasury
henry knox
adam's secretary of war
edmund randolf
adam's attorney general
political parties
groups of people who organize to help elect government officials and influence government policies
residence act
sets aside 10 sq. miles on the banks of the Potomac River for a capital city- not a part of any state, it is a federal territory
District of Columbia
a federal district of the eastern United States on the Potomac River between Virginia and Maryland
Washington DC
capital of the United States
Pierre Charles Lenfante
designed Washington DC
Benjamin Benmecker
surveyed the city of Washington DC
the whiskey tax
1791 tax on the manufacture of corn whiskey- paid by rural, western farmers
tariffs
tax on imported goods
Bank of the United States
the institution that puts money into circulation; also pays down the debt
The Jay Treaty
1794 treaty between the US and Great Britain in which diplomatic and economic trade ties arre re-established- helps to restore prosperity to the American economy
whiskey rebellion
a 1794 protest over a tax on all liquor made and sold in the United States by western PA farmers
General "Light Horse" Harry Lee
lad the federal army to put down the Whiskey Rebellion- no real fighting
the Federalist Party
started by Alexander Hamilton- favored stronger federal gov't- became foundation for Washington's administration
Democratic-Republican Party
believed that gov't should not act with greater strength- it should stay out of the lives of people
XYZ Affair
French foreign minister Tallyrand's three anonymous agents demanded payments to stop French plundering of American ships in 1797; refusal to pay the bribe led to two years of sea war with France
The Alien and Sedition Acts
These acts were passed under Adams' watch. They limited immigration and allowed the president to prosecute those who engaged in sedition against the gov't.
Alien Act
gave president authority to deport individuals whom he considered threat to US
Sedition Act
makes it illegal for Americans to write, publish, or state any information about the gov't that is "false, scandalous, or malicious"
The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
Claimed that the Alien and Sedation Acct could not be put into action because they violated the Constitution. The Kentucky Resolution even suggested that they might nullify the federal laws
states rights
ability of a state to leave the union
Charles Pickney
federalist from South Carolina who ran in the election of 1800
Aaron Burr
Jefferson's vice president (D-R) in election of 1800 --> his tie with Jefferson for the presidency led to the 12th amendment
midnight judges
the judges appointed by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were all Federalists appointed in the last night of Adam's administration; Adams appointed these men in hopes of keeping the Federalists' influence in the judiciary branch of government
John Marshall
appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court by John Adams
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional
William Marbury
midnight judge that did not recieve his summons because madison never sent it out
Judiciary Act of 1789
This law formally created the American court system, establishing a federal district court in each state and giving the Supreme Court final jurisdiction in all legal matters- deemed unconstitutional after Marbury vs Madison case
judicial review
power of the American courts to review laws
land act of 1800
passed before Jefferson took office, it allowed Americans to buy land in the west in small parcels and on credit
James Monroe
sent to France by Jefferson in 1803 to purchase the French city of New Orleans and as a result purchases the territory of Lousiana
Iroquois
A term which designates a confederacy of 5 tribes originally inhabiting the northern part of New York state
Cherokee
Native Americans from the southern United States.
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
The Corps of Discovery
The group that went with Lewis & Clark on their expedition
impress
Forced into foreign military.
Embargo Act of 1807
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy
reservations
federal land set aside and then given to native american groups- not subject to local or state gov't authority
Little Turtle
Chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace
Miami tribe
native american tribe from ohio
Handsome Lake
A Seneca Iroquois prophet. Preached against alcoholism by appealing to religious traditions. Had Quaker missionaries teach agricultural methods to the Iroquois men.
Seneca
a member of the Iroquoian people formerly living in New York state south of Lake Ontario
Tenskwatawa
He was called the Prophet, a Shawnee. He said his soul had taken a journey to the spirit world/learned the path that all Native Americans must take if they wanted to live happily. He said Native Americans must reject white ways and no longer trade with the settlers.
The Prophet
nickname for Tenskwatawa
Tecumseh
a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement
Shawnee
a member of the Algonquian people formerly living along the Tennessee river
Pan. Indian Movement
unite and link together all Native American groups in the west and build a large body of people who could resist
Prophetstown
built by Tenskwatawa to be a model Native American community to resist white society
William Henry Harrison
governor/general of Indiana who wins the Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle of Tippecanoe
1811 Tecumseh and the Prophet attack, but General Harrison crushes them in this battle ends Tecumseh's attempt to unite all tribes in Mississippi.
Battle of the Thames
Battle at which Tecumseh died in, which ended the Indian confederation
The Second Anglo-American War
aka the war of 1812
war hawks
second generation of American leaders in Congress who favored going to war with the British
James Madison
4th U.S. President. 1809-1817. Democratic-Republican
War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism
Fort York
aka Toronto- captured by US army in 1812
Oliver Hazzard Perry
1823-lead a victory at the battle of Lake Erie, naval officer
Battle of lake Erie
In the War of 1812, an American victory led by Oliver Perry against the British
Hartford Convention
Meeting of New England Federalist who were opposed to the War of 1812 and wanted to seek a separate peace with Britain even if it meant seceding from the Union.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans
nationalism
pride in one's nation
seccession
formal separation from an alliance or federation