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John Adams

federalist; first vice president; 2nd president of the United States-aka


a group of advisors who also are the department heads that run the executive branch of gov't


official in charge of a department of government

Secretary of the State

deals with foreign affairs

Secretary of the Treasury

deals with finances

Secretary of War

runs the military

The Attorney General

deals with legal issues and law enforcement

Thomas Jefferson

Adam's secretary of state

alexander hamilton

adam's secretary of the treasury

henry knox

adam's secretary of war

edmund randolf

adam's attorney general

political parties

groups of people who organize to help elect government officials and influence government policies

residence act

sets aside 10 sq. miles on the banks of the Potomac River for a capital city- not a part of any state, it is a federal territory

District of Columbia

a federal district of the eastern United States on the Potomac River between Virginia and Maryland

Washington DC

capital of the United States

Pierre Charles Lenfante

designed Washington DC

Benjamin Benmecker

surveyed the city of Washington DC

the whiskey tax

1791 tax on the manufacture of corn whiskey- paid by rural, western farmers


tax on imported goods

Bank of the United States

the institution that puts money into circulation; also pays down the debt

The Jay Treaty

1794 treaty between the US and Great Britain in which diplomatic and economic trade ties arre re-established- helps to restore prosperity to the American economy

whiskey rebellion

a 1794 protest over a tax on all liquor made and sold in the United States by western PA farmers

General "Light Horse" Harry Lee

lad the federal army to put down the Whiskey Rebellion- no real fighting

the Federalist Party

started by Alexander Hamilton- favored stronger federal gov't- became foundation for Washington's administration

Democratic-Republican Party

believed that gov't should not act with greater strength- it should stay out of the lives of people

XYZ Affair

French foreign minister Tallyrand's three anonymous agents demanded payments to stop French plundering of American ships in 1797; refusal to pay the bribe led to two years of sea war with France

The Alien and Sedition Acts

These acts were passed under Adams' watch. They limited immigration and allowed the president to prosecute those who engaged in sedition against the gov't.

Alien Act

gave president authority to deport individuals whom he considered threat to US

Sedition Act

makes it illegal for Americans to write, publish, or state any information about the gov't that is "false, scandalous, or malicious"

The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions

Claimed that the Alien and Sedation Acct could not be put into action because they violated the Constitution. The Kentucky Resolution even suggested that they might nullify the federal laws

states rights

ability of a state to leave the union

Charles Pickney

federalist from South Carolina who ran in the election of 1800

Aaron Burr

Jefferson's vice president (D-R) in election of 1800 --> his tie with Jefferson for the presidency led to the 12th amendment

midnight judges

the judges appointed by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were all Federalists appointed in the last night of Adam's administration; Adams appointed these men in hopes of keeping the Federalists' influence in the judiciary branch of government

John Marshall

appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court by John Adams

Marbury vs. Madison

Case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional

William Marbury

midnight judge that did not recieve his summons because madison never sent it out

Judiciary Act of 1789

This law formally created the American court system, establishing a federal district court in each state and giving the Supreme Court final jurisdiction in all legal matters- deemed unconstitutional after Marbury vs Madison case

judicial review

power of the American courts to review laws

land act of 1800

passed before Jefferson took office, it allowed Americans to buy land in the west in small parcels and on credit

James Monroe

sent to France by Jefferson in 1803 to purchase the French city of New Orleans and as a result purchases the territory of Lousiana


A term which designates a confederacy of 5 tribes originally inhabiting the northern part of New York state


Native Americans from the southern United States.

Lewis and Clark

Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.

The Corps of Discovery

The group that went with Lewis & Clark on their expedition


Forced into foreign military.

Embargo Act of 1807

This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy


federal land set aside and then given to native american groups- not subject to local or state gov't authority

Little Turtle

Chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace

Miami tribe

native american tribe from ohio

Handsome Lake

A Seneca Iroquois prophet. Preached against alcoholism by appealing to religious traditions. Had Quaker missionaries teach agricultural methods to the Iroquois men.


a member of the Iroquoian people formerly living in New York state south of Lake Ontario


He was called the Prophet, a Shawnee. He said his soul had taken a journey to the spirit world/learned the path that all Native Americans must take if they wanted to live happily. He said Native Americans must reject white ways and no longer trade with the settlers.

The Prophet

nickname for Tenskwatawa


a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement


a member of the Algonquian people formerly living along the Tennessee river

Pan. Indian Movement

unite and link together all Native American groups in the west and build a large body of people who could resist


built by Tenskwatawa to be a model Native American community to resist white society

William Henry Harrison

governor/general of Indiana who wins the Battle of Tippecanoe

Battle of Tippecanoe

1811 Tecumseh and the Prophet attack, but General Harrison crushes them in this battle ends Tecumseh's attempt to unite all tribes in Mississippi.

Battle of the Thames

Battle at which Tecumseh died in, which ended the Indian confederation

The Second Anglo-American War

aka the war of 1812

war hawks

second generation of American leaders in Congress who favored going to war with the British

James Madison

4th U.S. President. 1809-1817. Democratic-Republican

War of 1812

War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism

Fort York

aka Toronto- captured by US army in 1812

Oliver Hazzard Perry

1823-lead a victory at the battle of Lake Erie, naval officer

Battle of lake Erie

In the War of 1812, an American victory led by Oliver Perry against the British

Hartford Convention

Meeting of New England Federalist who were opposed to the War of 1812 and wanted to seek a separate peace with Britain even if it meant seceding from the Union.

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

Battle of New Orleans

Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.

Andrew Jackson

The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans


pride in one's nation


formal separation from an alliance or federation

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