i. Homosexuality is viewed as a curse or worst by many cultures. These attitudes exist in many quaters of very egalitarian cultures like the U. S. They can be beaten, publicly humiliated and shamed, and even persecuted by the state. Attitudes concerning sex and sexuality are often linked with cultural values of honor and transgressions. For example: Premarital sex or homosexuality can be seen as an injury to one's own or one's family's honor and a disgrace with sometimes deadly consequences.
ii. Female Genital Organs in some African Middle Eastern, Asain, South American, and Pacific cultures can be carried out in settings such as sterile hospitals to non-sterile homes. This has ties with attitudes concerning virtuousness, chasity, and honor for the women. It is also considered a way to promote marital fidelity, control women's sex drives, and even to enhance fertility among women. These kinds of attitudes were used in part to justify the enforcement of passive gender roles on women.
iii. The FGM does not appear to have any health benefits, but it does have health problems including death, infertility, or urinary tract defects. Egalitarian cultures view practice as barbaric and outdated. However, the practice is tied with so much honor and virtue that in many cultures women would be shunned as social outcasts and would not be able to marry.