26 terms

Chapter 6 Culture and Gender

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Sexuality
Hofstede identified key differences between masuline and femeinine cultures in terms of ________.
moralistic attitudes about sex, had double standards about sex (women should be virgins till marriage but not men) and had norms of encouraging passive roles of woment.
How are cultures high on masculinity defined according to Hofstede?
tend to have matter of fact attitudes about sex, a single standard concerning sex for men and women, and norms that encouraged an active role for women in society.
How are cultures low on masulinity defined according to Hofstede?
more traidional, focusing on religion, and focused on god or gods.
Describe masculine attiudes about religion.
less traditional, emphasize the importance of religion in life less, and focus on fellow humans
Describe feminine attitudes about religion.
his findings highlighted that cultures will arrive at different ways of dealing with differences between men and women. The behavior men and women engage in produce different psychological outcomes that have direct ramifications for actual life behaviors.
Why was Hofstedes study important of masculine vs feminine cultures?
Materialism
Masculinity in Holfstede's dimension may also be interpreted as ________.
1. Moralistic attitudes about sex
2. AIDS prevention campaigns restricted by taboos
3. Double standard: Women should be chaste at marriage yet men needn't
4. Norms of passive role of woman
5. Men become more attractive by career success, women less
6. In uncertainty-accepting cultures, frequent teenage pregnancies
7. Young people more influenced by peers
8. Ego-oriented Sex
9. Women feel exploited by first sex
10. Sexual Harassment major issue
11. Sharp distinction between sex and love
12. Sex and violence in media frequent
13. Lovers should be successful attractive
14. Happy lovers get equitable mutual deal
15. Interaction with other sex less intimate
16. Sex is a way of performing
What is the high masculinity list of Hofstedes in sexual behavior? (16)
1. Matter of fact attitudes about sex
2. AIDS prevention campaigns very outspoken
3. Single standard for women and men
4. Norm of active role of women
5. Sexual Attraction unrelated to career success
6. In uncertainty-accepting cultures, few teenage pregnancies
7. Young peoplemore influenced by parents
8. Other oriented sex
9. Women enjoy first sex
10. Unwanted intimacies not major issue
11. Homosexuality is a fact of life
12. Weak distinction between sex and love
13. Sex and violence in media taboo
14. Lovers should be educated social
15. Happy lovers over benefit from the other
16. Interaction with other sex more intimate
17. Sex is A way of relating to someone
What is the low masculinity list of Hofstedes in sexual behavior? (17)
1. "Tough" religions and religious currents
2. Maintenance of traditional Christianity
3. Religion most important in life
4. Religion focuses on God or Gods
5. Children socialized toward religious faith
6. Traditionalism, theism and conversionism
7. Dominant religions stress male prerogative
8. Only men can be priests
9. Sex is primarily
10. Negative attitude toward sexual pleasure
11. Sexuality as primordial Area of human motivation
What is the high masculinity list of Hofstedes in religion? (11)
1. "Tender" religions and religious current
2. Secularized in Christian countries
3. Religion not so important in life
4. Religion focuses on fellow human beings
5. Children socialized toward responsibility and politeness
6. Exemplarism and mysticism
7. Dominant religions stress complementarity of the sexes
8. Men and women can be priests
9. Sex is for procreation and recreation
10. Positive or neutral attitude toward sexual pleasure
11. Sexuality as one area of human motivation
What is the low masculinity list of Hofstedes in religion? (11)
Females are claimed to more obedient and conforming then men are. When tested cross culturally it depended on the idea of tightness. Cultures that appeared to be tighter appeared tohave greater gender differences in conformity where women were omore conformist than males. Tight cultures may require a greater degree of confomity to traditional gender roles on both sexes. However cultures who were looser showed less gender difference in conformity and in some cultures males were found more conforming than females. Thus cross-cultural differences exist in the degree and in some cases the direction of this difference
Discuss the results of cross-cultural research on gender differences in Conformity?
Males are more aggressive than females in all cultures (which is documented), mostly in adolescents and it is believed that hormones is the cause, but culture and environment can have an impact on aggression. Males aggression could be encouraged or discouraged based on their envirement which will allow its emergence or not. (Think of Conduct Disorders)
Males and female aggression toward their partners in developed westernized nations, but this did not generalize to all nations. The magnitude of the sex difference in physical aggression was related to levels of gender empowerment and individualism. Cultures that were more individualistic and that empowered women more had less female victimization and more male victimization. Explained by social role theory: sex differences in social behavior results from the division of labor between men and women.
Discuss the results of cross-cultural research on gender differences in Aggression.
i. Women universally reported higher scores in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth and Openness to Feelings
ii. Men universally reported higher scores on Assertivenss and Openness to Ideas.
iii. Interestingly the differences between men and women were the largest in Europe and the U.S which typically promote more individualistic and egalitarian values.
Discuss the results of cross-cultural research on gender differences in Personality. (3)
i. Homosexuality is viewed as a curse or worst by many cultures. These attitudes exist in many quaters of very egalitarian cultures like the U. S. They can be beaten, publicly humiliated and shamed, and even persecuted by the state. Attitudes concerning sex and sexuality are often linked with cultural values of honor and transgressions. For example: Premarital sex or homosexuality can be seen as an injury to one's own or one's family's honor and a disgrace with sometimes deadly consequences.
ii. Female Genital Organs in some African Middle Eastern, Asain, South American, and Pacific cultures can be carried out in settings such as sterile hospitals to non-sterile homes. This has ties with attitudes concerning virtuousness, chasity, and honor for the women. It is also considered a way to promote marital fidelity, control women's sex drives, and even to enhance fertility among women. These kinds of attitudes were used in part to justify the enforcement of passive gender roles on women.
iii. The FGM does not appear to have any health benefits, but it does have health problems including death, infertility, or urinary tract defects. Egalitarian cultures view practice as barbaric and outdated. However, the practice is tied with so much honor and virtue that in many cultures women would be shunned as social outcasts and would not be able to marry.
Discuss the results of cross-cultural research on gender differences in Sexuality. (3)
i. Expectancies for male roles to solve problems is through aggression female roles include communal responses to resolve problems
ii. There are many cultures where they teach aggression and the cultures that do not teach sex related in aggression did not show a difference.
iii. Ambivalent attitudes : hostile and benevolent attitudes toward men, which lead to suggest that gender inequality in a country may start with how the people view the role of men. Women were labeled more positive in all cultures.
iv. Biology nor sex differences in teaching aggressive acts can account or gender differences in aggression observed across cultures. Some research suggests that male aggressionmay be compensatory mechanism to offset the conflict produced by a young male's identification with a female care provder and his intiation into adulthood as a male. "Gender Marketing" behavior
How does social behaviors from both genders result the division in labor? (Aggression) (4)
hey scored the adjectives in each country in terms of favorability, stregnth, and acticity, to examine how the adjectives were distributed according to affective or emotional meaning. Results: Congruence in these analysis: The characteristics associated with men were stornger and more active than those associated wth women across all countries. Favorability differences emerged some countries rated males characteristics as more favorable thatn the females where other countries rated the females characteristics more favorable than the males. according to reproductive processes produced differences in behaviors that produced differences in psychological characteristics. It may be that these psychological characteristics had some evolutionary and adaptive advantages for males and females to fulfill their roles as prescribed by the division of labor. Ot could be that men and women in all cultures became set in these precise ways, accounting for universal consensus on these descriptors. At the same time, men and women may have because in a particular mindset about cultural differences because of perceived social inequality or social forces and indirect communication via mass media and the like.
Discuss Best and Williams' findings on gender stereotypes across cultures.
Division of labor (independently); 2/3
Why are the stereotypes of gender world wide? What was the majority of the vote?
Men are generally viewed as active, strong, critical and adultike, with psychological needs such as dominance, autonomy, aggression, exhibition, achievement, and endurance. Men are also associated more with the personality traits of conscientiousness, extroversion and openness
How are men generalized through out the world? (Best Williams Findings)
Women are generally viewed as passive, weak, nutruing, and adaptive, with psychological needs such as abasement, deference, succorance, nurturance, affiliation, and heterosexuality.
They are also associated with higher scores on the personality traits of agreeableness and neuroticism
How are women generalized through out the world? (Best and Williams Findings)
1. Traditional
2. Egalitarian
3. In younger population both girls and boys wanted to be kind and honest when they grew up, but in their minds men were more associated with having a job and providing for a family where females were to look pretty.
4. Study in Netherlands: children tested with 12 different concepts of girls are better than boys etc. results showed that girls were less traditional than boys. Adolescents from wealthier and more individualistic countries were less traditional than adolescents from poorer and more collectivist countries. Therefore gender role ideologies may be changing as societies undergo change. She found that more than half the girls in her study depicted the ideal woman as being employed outside the home even though the traditional role of Sri Lankan woman was that of homemaker.
5. Religion has a big impact on gender roles for instance in Palestine Islamic customs are fighting modernity and maintaining traditional family functioning, and especially traditional ideas of women's roles in family and society. These findings highlight the important role of religion in understanding how gender role ideologies are defined and preserved in different cultures.
Discuss cultural influences on gender role ideology. (5)
judgments about what males and females ought to be like or ought to do
What is gender role ideology?
1. Androgyny
2. Women who consider themselves to be androgyny have a higher level of self acceptance than either feminine or masculine girls. For boys however a masculine not androgynous identity is associated with the higher level of self acceptance.
3. Asian families carried on traditional gender roles from their original culture. Asian females are often expected to bear the brunt of domestic duties to raise children, and to be "good" daughter-in-laws. Asian males often raised aloof and, unemotional, and authoritative, especially concerning familial issues. Some studies however have suggested a loosening of these rigid traditional gender roles for Asian American males and females. Although Asian American male may still appear as figurative head of the family in public in reality much decisionmaking power within the family in the private is held by the Asian American female head of the household.
4. Mexican American's traditional role is to provide for th children and take care of the home. Males were traditionally expected to fill the role of provider for the family. Machoism: incorporates many traditional expectations of the male gender role, such as being unemotional, strong , authoritative, and aggressive. This is decreasing women are increasingly sharing in decision making in the family as well as taking on a more direct role as provider though work outside the home. Adolescent males are still given more freedome outside the home than girls. This movement continues to place high value on the traditional role of wife and mother yet offers a wider interpretation of roles acceptable for Latinas.
5. Native Americans seem to depend heavily on patriarchal or matriarchal nature of the tribal culture of origin. In patriarchal or matriarchal nature of the tribal culture of origin.
1. Patriarchal: women assume primary responsibility for the welfare of the children and extended family members, but males of Mescalero Apache tribe often take responsibility for children when they are with their families. As with other ethnic groups the passage of time, increased interaction with people of other cultures and with mainstream American culture, and the movement toward urban living seems to have effected changes in these traditional values and expectations for Native American males and females.
Discuss enthnicity influences on gender role ideology. (5)
scores tended to describe gender roles that were consistent with the traditional or universal norms ound in their earlier research
What is traditional according to cultural influences in gender ideology?
scores reflected a tendency toward less differentiation between males and females on the various psychological characteristics. Women tended to have this view more than men
What is egaliteration according to cultural influences in gender ideology?
gender identity that involves endorsement of both males and female characteristics. Bern Sex Role inventory: a scale that is widely used to measure gender identity to African and European Americans. It found that both African American males and females were more androgynous that European American. African Americans have equal propensity to endorse typically masculine traits wheras European American's view masculinity as more of a self description.
What is Adrogyn according to enthnicty influences in gender ideology?