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105 terms

apush ch 12-13

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farm communities
these were the center of rural life and linked farmers with the rest of the world
farm communities
people in these towns believed in communal values and community over competition
the shakers
these were founded by anne lee. they were big on agriculture and handcrafts.
the shakers
believed that the end of the world was near and that sin entered the world through sex.
the shakers
had communities that were families, there were no individual families
the mormons
this group was started/spread by joseph smith
the mormons
was awaiting the second coming and thought only people of their kind could be saved. these people also believed in polygamy.
brook farm
utopian community near boston that was inspired by transcendentalism
brook farm
people here rejected materialism and favored rural communalism. they had good carpenter skills and were similar to the shakers.
transcendentalism
the belief that the physical world is secondary to the spiritual realm. these people believed in higher powers, not God.
american renaissance
this was inspired by transcendentalist writers who began to see things differently because of nature.
american renaissance
had writings about moral truths. the themes were universal and very american.
ralph waldo emerson
was a big part in the transcendental movement. he preached indiviualism and self reliance.
american renaissance writers
focused on universal themes and humanity
california gold rush
during this, people abused the land and left it unsuitable for anything when they were done. most never found gold.
forty-niners
most of these people never found enough gold to pay off their expenses and made it so alot of food and agriculture was needed in california to support all of them, so the agriculture business booms as did the jobs in that field
women
not alot were in the gold rush, but those who were provided domestic services
farming
forty niners resorted to this when they couldnt find gold, leading to the agricultural boom
urban problems
people flooded cities too fast, ppl there couldn't prepare for them. much disease and polluted water.
mass transit
the biggest cause for people going to cities
horace mann
secretary of board of ed. made school yr 6 mo and supported free, state sponsored ed. thought education would end all problems/ bad things
urban riots
caused by political, social, racial, and ethnic conflict erupting in the streets
urban riots
led to formation of gangs, and later on, uniformed policemen
urban riots
the main cause of these was competition for jobs; everyone was competing against eachother
alexis de tocqueville
said the US was a good place for WHITE males. visited all the states and connected mobility with equality; the more people could move around, the more chances they had to start anew
inherited/marriage
most wealth was..
wealth
this was concentrated in a small number of people. the top 10% of people held 3/4 of land.
wealthy
lived under standards that would help them remain elite
urban poor
lived in hoods w/o opportunity. women couldn't find jobs, so families couldn't be supported.
poverty
hit immigrants, free blacks, working poor, and single moms.
NYC five points
this neighborhood was mostly immigrant irish and freed blacks. very poor, one of the worst slums in the world.
urban middle class
lived in LUXURY (toliets, running water, large houses). depended on possessions to show class.
cult of domesticity
the belief that women should only be teachers or supporters of the husbands. this was the ideal role for women to partake in society.
irish immigrants
came because there was a potato famine, and were eventually defeated by the english.
irish immigrants
settled mostly in urban areas
irish immigrants
were celtic not british
scandanavian immigrants
settled in rural areas
anti-catholic sentiment
motivated mainly by economic competition. citizens feared that irish would take their jobs, so blamed them for all their problems.
german immigrants
hard working, self-reliant, smart.
german immigrants
came to america for political reasons, not economic.
german immigrants
celebrated on the sabbath by making sausages and drinking beer. this led to discrimination.
Hispanics
never migrated to america, america expanded its borders therefore making them residents of US. originally lived in texas.
Hispanics
viewed as 2nd class citizens.
free black population
grows greatly from 1830-1860 because of the underground railroad
free black population growth
causes more segregation and discrimination
black nationalism
held ideas of racial solidarity, self-help, and growing interest in africa. blacks fled to canada/af while europeans flooded into US.
Pierce butler
slaveholder in debt who held the largest slave drive ever to get out of debt.
low population density
was in older plantation and frontier areas.
population in non-slaves states E of Mis.R.
was 3x higher
whites
said slavery was "positive good" and "necessary evil"
proslavery arguments
whites=intellectual blacks=physical
proslavery arguments
slavery is an economic necessity/ profitable
proslavery arguments
blacks are created to be low in society
proslavery arguments
bible defends use of slaves
proslavery arguments
slavery is good because it is taking care of an inferior race
slavery
is ALL based on skin color
yeoman farmers
didn't have slaves, owned land and grew crops
yeoman farmers
valued self-reliance and freedom from other's control
yeoman farmers
wanted to get slaves so they could move up in society
yeoman folk culture
family, community, faith
75%
of whites did NOT own slaves
landless whites of the antebellum south
owned only items, NO land. were irish immigrants who did dangerous work.
landless whites
worked towards buying land to move up in society
free blacks
had conditions worse than yeoman farmers but better than slaves.
free blacks
could not own land or guns, and had to labor in fields with slaves
slave holding planters
top of society
1%
of slaveholding planters had large plantations with lots of slaves, but most were yeoman planters w few slaves.
paternalism
the believe that you are obligated to take care of someone who is incapable of taking care of themselves
paternalism
masks/hides racism
paternalists
not oppressors, 'guardians'
paternalism
focused more on obligations than the profitable aspects of commercial agriculture.
women of the planter class
not allowed to challenge society's rues on sexual/racil relation
women of the planter class
oversee slaves cooking and watch children
women of the planter class
couldn't speak up about their husbands having sex with slaves
ostrich game
wives would stick their 'heads in the ground' as if not to notice their husbands having sex with slaves
southern slaves
got a little more than the bare necessities--enough to eat, but plain diets, bc masters wanted them to be able to do work. No shoes. One room cabins.
slaves
started work before dawn and worked until dusk. (gang labor system)
gang labor system
sun to sun. women/children work hard. get beat if you dont meet enough harvesting.
the task system
slaves were assigned measured amounts of work to be performed in a given amount of time
the task system
was more affective than gang labor system because it gave more freedom to slaves
authority
was symbolized by beatings
larger plantations
had more violence. whites thought that blacks could not be governed without the whip.
emotional damage
was greater than the physical damage experienced by slaves. being owned and sold emotionally corrupted them.
slave-master relationship
mainly distrust; some masters treated slaves 'good'
culture
gives slaves hope and links to time when they weren't enslaved
africa
was the MAIN culture influence among slave
slave religion
was mainly christianity.
slave christianity
was based on deliverance/justice while their masters religion was based on control.
slave religion
consisted mainly of personal and group salvation
music
left the biggest impact on american culture from the slaves. huge enterprise.
music
was vital to slave religion and contained songs about sadness and joy.
slave traders
mixed racism and business
slave traders
caused instability in slave families
unique names
were given to slave kids to create a sense of freedom
family
was the main source of support for slaves
slave resistance
slaves slacked off, broke equipment, stole food. tried to escape north.
slave resistance
was mostly subtle; violence would make conditions worse so slaves outsmarted owners instead.
denmark vesey
won lottery and bought freedom. combined bible teachings with revolutionary ideas to justify his plan to overthrow slavery.
nat turner
led the most successful slave rebellion
nat turner
kill 60 whites and led to his own death and the deaths of 200 blacks
nat turner
led to the passing of state laws making it illegal to educate blacks and stopped their religious freedom
virginia debate
was discussing ending slavery, but never happened.
virginia debate
was driven by fear and anti-black sentiments
social status
was determined by slaves owned
slave labor
devalued the labor of whites bc blacks did the same work for free.